Twitter Logo Youtube Circle Icon LinkedIn Icon

Italy > Banking and finance > Law firm and leading lawyer rankings

Editorial

Bank regulatory

Index of tables

  1. Banking and finance: bank regulatory
  2. Leading individuals
  3. Next generation lawyers

Leading individuals

  1. 1

Next generation lawyers

  1. 1

Who Represents Who

Find out which law firms are representing which Bank regulatory clients in Italy using The Legal 500's new comprehensive database of law firm/client relationships. Instantly search over 925,000 relationships, including over 83,000 Fortune 500, 46,000 FTSE350 and 13,000 DAX 30 relationships globally. Access is free for in-house lawyers, and by subscription for law firms. For more information, contact david.burgess@legal500.com.

CLICK HERE TO VISIT THE WHO REPRESENTS WHO SITE

BonelliErede regularly acts on the regulatory side to significant banking sector M&A deals. It also advises major banks and investment firms on the rules governing investment services and banking activities; the team has substantial expertise in the asset management sector. Milan-based Giuseppe Rumi is recommended.

Chiomenti Studio Legale’s ‘professional service is of outstanding quality’. The team frequently advises on the regulatory aspects of banking sector M&A and finance transactions, and Milan-based Alessandro Zappasodi assisted Julius Baer Group with the regulatory aspects of the acquisition of a controlling stake in Kairos Investment Management. Rome-based Vincenzo Troiano heads the department, which covers banks, insurance and other regulated entities. Milan-based Alessandro Portolano is ‘in a class of his own’.

Clifford Chance’s team is ‘responsive and committed to providing the best solutions, always taking into account clients’ business needs’. It has a solid client base of global financial institutions, for which it acts on high-level transactions and banking products. Milan-based Lucio Bonavitacola, who is rated for his business acumen, is in regular contact with the regulatory bodies, the Bank of Italy and CONSOB (the National Commission for Companies and the Stock Exchange).

Bird & Bird has an excellent reputation for providing regulatory advice to major financial institutions. The team assisted Intesa SanPaolo with multiple issues concerning its banking and investment services’ performance. Key names in Milan are Raimondo Maggiore, Stefano Febbi and senior counsel Luigi Spada. Danilo Quattrocchi recently moved to DLA Piper.

Hogan Lovells Studio Legale’s ‘service is more than satisfactory in terms of quality, responsiveness and business orientation’. Rome-based Jeffrey Greenbaum routinely interacts with financial regulators in developing and interpreting financial regulation; his ‘leadership is highly appreciated, as well as his extensive network among tier one representatives of financial institutions, authorities and the public sector in general’. He recently assisted a financial institution with the regulatory aspects of the acquisition of an investment bank’s credit card business.

Linklaters was recently particularly active in bank deleveraging transactions. The team assisted Credit Suisse with the structuring and implementation of a leveraged employee stock ownership plan for Intesa Sanpaolo. Dario Longo in Milan is recommended.

Studio Legale Associato in affiliation with Simmons & Simmons LLP has an impressive client base across the institutional market, including investment banks, asset managers and hedge funds, and regularly acts on both sell-side and buy-side issues. Milan-based Romeo Battigaglia is the key name.

Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP’s Rome-based Giuseppe Scassellati-Sforzolini recently advised American Express on several matters, including a regulatory investigation into contractual terms and conditions; corporate governance, consumer protection and compliance issues; and the regulatory aspects of its payment services and lending activities.

Craca Di Carlo Guffanti Pisapia Tatozzi & Associati’s highlights included assisting the Kairos Group with the authorisation request for the provision of banking services by Kairos Julius Baer SIM. The key advisers are Milan-based Francesco Di Carlo and Edoardo Guffanti.

At Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, ‘highly competent’ financial regulatory expert Raffaele Lener in Rome advised CheBanca! on the regulatory aspects of the transfer of assets from Barclays to the client.

Grimaldi SL LLP’s Milan-based Luigi Baglivo has significant experience in advising Italian and international banks and other finance institutions on regulatory matters. The practice recently advised Banca IMI on the provision of investment services.

Legance – Avvocati Associati assisted Elliott Advisors (UK) with the authorisation process for the acquisition of a qualifying holding in Credito Fondiario. The ‘highly focused’ Andrea Giannelli is recommended along with senior counsel Marco Penna; both are based in Milan.


Borrower side

Index of tables

  1. Banking and finance: borrower side
  2. Other recommended firms
  3. Leading individuals
  4. Next generation lawyers

Leading individuals

  1. 1

Next generation lawyers

  1. 1

Who Represents Who

Find out which law firms are representing which Borrower side clients in Italy using The Legal 500's new comprehensive database of law firm/client relationships. Instantly search over 925,000 relationships, including over 83,000 Fortune 500, 46,000 FTSE350 and 13,000 DAX 30 relationships globally. Access is free for in-house lawyers, and by subscription for law firms. For more information, contact david.burgess@legal500.com.

CLICK HERE TO VISIT THE WHO REPRESENTS WHO SITE

BonelliErede’s expertise encompasses acquisition finance, corporate finance, property finance, project finance, restructuring, financial services and related regulatory issues. The team advised a consortium, comprised of Antin Infrastructure Partners, Borletti Group and ICAMAP, on the financing of its acquisition of Grandi Stazioni Retail. Catia Tomasetti in Rome and Milan-based Emanuela Da Rin are recommended.

Chiomenti Studio Legale is particularly focused on the borrower side. Milan-based head of finance Giulia Battaglia advised Gianni Versace on obtaining revolving credit facilities totalling €250m, granted by a syndicate of banks. Carola Antonini, Luca Bonetti and Carmelo Raimondo in Milan are recommended, together with Rome and Milan-based Gregorio Consoli, who is ‘focused on getting results’. Francesco Ago and Giorgio Cappelli in Rome are also highly rated.

Clifford Chancegets straight to the point and is business-minded’. The team advised Pirelli on the legal aspects of its €6.4bn refinancing of acquisition debt and other indebtedness. Rome-based Giuseppe De Palma heads the banking and finance practice, in which Milan-based Ferdinando Poscio is ‘very smart and available to answers questions promptly’. Charles Adams divides time between Milan and New York.

Linklaters has cemented strong relationships with leading local and international corporates. Italy managing partner Andrea Arosio advised Tikehau Investment Management on the financing of its acquisition and recapitalisation of Selcom. Francesco Faldi is also recommended; Davide Mencacci relocated to the firm’s Hong Kong office.

Allen & Overy – Studio Legale Associato’s ‘performance is outstanding’. The ‘excellent, proactive’ Pietro Scarfone advised Gruppo Campari on obtaining a €300m term loan from Banco Popolare, Intesa Sanpaolo and UniCredit. Milan-based head of banking Stefano Sennhauser ‘has deep knowledge’. Real estate counsel Carlo Merisio, who has ‘a solid background with a good mix of hard technical and legal skills and relationship capabilities’, joined from Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer. Nicholas Clark returned to the London office.

Gianni, Origoni, Grippo, Cappelli & Partnersprovides outstanding work’. Rome-based Giuseppe De Simone is ‘highly competent and able to meet complex requests despite tight timing’; he recently advised Intesa SanPaolo on the assignment of non-performing loans (NPLs) to Creditech. Other recommended figures in Rome are Stefano Agnoli, who ‘understands clients’ needs’, as well as Eugenio Grippo and Matteo Gotti. Key figures in Milan include projects and infrastructure head Ottaviano Sanseverino, Matteo Bragantini and Emanuele Grippo.

Legance – Avvocati Associati’s ‘service is accurate and comprehensive’. Milan-based Andrea Giannelli advised Aeroporti di Roma on a revolving credit facility granted by a pool of lenders. Luca Autuori is ‘an excellent adviser’, Monica Colombera has ‘great negotiation skills’ and Filippo Ruffato is also recommended. Other experienced advisers include Giandomenico Ciaramella and Emanuele Espositi in Rome, as well as Guido Iannoni Sebastianini, who divides time between Milan and Rome. Emanuela Campari Bernacchi joined Gattai Minoli Agostinelli & Partners.

DLA Piper’s Milan-based Mario D’Ovidio focuses on acquisition finance, real estate finance and project finance transactions; he is ‘outstanding; in addition to widely recognised technical skills, he has the ability to see deals through clients’ eyes’. Project highlights included advising the project consortium on the $1.15bn bond financing of the construction of the new Metro Line 2 in Lima, Peru. Milan-based key contacts include Francesco Ferrari, Ugo Calò and Federico Zucconi Galli Fonseca. In Rome, senior partner Francesco Novelli is recommended along with Giovanni Ragnoni Bosco Lucarelli, who ‘shows great willingness to discuss and explain difficult issues, and proposes solutions to overcome negotiation standstills’. Antonio Lombardo splits time between Milan and Rome.

Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer regularly advises on acquisition and real estate finance transactions, and is particularly active in the NPL space. Milan-based Emiliano Conio, who has ‘a rigorous approach with a gentlemanly touch’, assisted Paine & Partners on obtaining a €51m financing to fund its acquisition of Suba Seeds and subsequent debt refinancing. Corrado Angelelli is also recommended.

Gattai Minoli Agostinelli & Partners has ‘a strong team, composed of experienced lawyers who react very quickly’. Recent work includes advising Clessidra on the financing of its acquisition of Arredoplast. Riccardo Agostinelli is ‘always ahead of the market and able to identify new solutions that become market practice’; he and Gaetano Carrello are practice co-heads. Lorenzo Vernetti and Marco Leonardi are also recommended; structured finance expert Emanuela Campari Bernacchi joined from Legance – Avvocati Associati.

Latham & Watkins LLP recently advised Schumann on the financing of the acquisition and refinancing of Sisal Group. Andrea Novarese and Marcello Bragliani are recommended; Mauro Saccani was promoted to counsel.

Norton Rose Fulbright’s standout features include energy, infrastructure, aviation and shipping sector expertise. In real estate, Milan-based Arturo Sferruzza advised Arka and Fingiochi on the refinancing of the construction of La Cartiera shopping centre in Pompeii. Mario Lisanti and Gennaro Mazzuoccolo are also key practitioners. Umberto Mauro left the firm.

Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe recently acted for the borrower in a large-value infrastructure financing. In Rome, Raul Ricozzi is a project and shipping finance expert and managing partner Patrizio Messina is also recommended; he ‘establishes excellent relations with clients’. Milan-based Emanuela Molinaro is a real estate finance specialist and Milan and Rome-based special counsel Dorothy de Rubeis has ‘a very practical approach to negotiations’.

White & Case (Europe) LLP’s team comprises Italian, English and US-qualified lawyers. It advised Onorato Armatori, Moby and Compagnia Italiana di Navigazione on a €260m term and revolving financing. Michael Immordino and Iacopo Canino are recommended. Gianluca Fanti joined from Ashurst, while Nicholas Lasagna moved to Studio Legale Associato in affiliation with Simmons & Simmons LLP.

At Ashurst, project finance expert Carloandrea Meacci advised Irminio on its up-to $100m borrowing base facility, arranged by Société Générale, BNP Paribas and Banca IMI. Italy head Franco Vigliano is a project finance, PPP and PFI specialist, whose ‘quality of work is always very high’. Gianluca Fanti joined White & Case (Europe) LLP.

Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP’s Milan and London-based Carlo de Vito Piscicelli advised Capgemini on the US finance aspects of the $3.8bn bridge financing of its acquisition of iGate. Milan-based Roberto Bonsignore is recommended along with ‘very sharp lawyer’ Giuseppe Scassellati-Sforzolini. Counsel Claudio Di Falco is a key figure in Rome.

At Hogan Lovells Studio Legale, Milan-based Carlo Massinishows outstanding availability and good negotiation skills’. The team advises on corporate acquisition, asset and project finance, and PPP matters, as well as infrastructure and real estate finance deals and loan portfolio transactions.

Always performing work diligently’, NCTM Studio Legale stands out for its work for borrowers in the NPL market and also has notable experience in Islamic finance. The practice advised EXA Holding on a financing, granted by a pool of banks for the acquisition of a majority stake in a target company. Milan-based department head Stefano Padovani, Corrado Verna and Giovanni De’ Capitani di Vimercate are recommended. Eugenio Siragusa and Giorgio Telarico are key advisers in Rome.

At Pedersoli Studio Legale, Maura Magioncalda recently advised Zignago Holding on the renegotiation and partial refinancing of €150m indebtedness. Alessandro Fosco Fagotto joined Dentons.

Studio Legale Associato in affiliation with Simmons & Simmons LLP hired Nicholas Lasagna from White & Case (Europe) LLP. Davide D’Affronto assisted Plastiape, as borrower, on its financing agreements with GE Capital and UBI. Fabrizio Dotti is another name to note.

Studio Professionale Associato a Baker & McKenzie hired Milan-based counsel Carlo Lichino as counsel from Clifford Chance. The team recently advised Regent Property (Statuto Group) on the amendment and syndication of a credit facility. Alberto Fornari is recommended.

CMSPaolo Bonolis is ‘a very sensible lawyer, who implements workable solutions’. He advised an investment fund on the refinancing and restructuring of a high-value credit facility.

Carnelutti Studio Legale Associato recently acted for Investire SGR on the restructuring and rescheduling of a real estate loan agreement and related security agreements. Marco Lantelme is recommended along with the ‘very responsive and accurate’ Claudio Lichino.

Eversheds Sutherland Associazione Professionale’s highlights included Milan-based Marco Franzini advising Italian Design Brands and Fingerva on a financing from UniCredit.

Grimaldi SL LLP recently assisted fund manager Castello SGR on a facility granted by UniCredit to refinance Fondo Augusto’s assets. Milan’s Carmine Oncia is the key name.

Jones Day’s Francesco Squerzonihas extensive experience in real estate finance’. The team advised Pradera European Retail Fund 2 on the restructuring of a portfolio of six existing loans.

Macchi di Cellere Gangemi recently advised Veronagest on a €180m multi-borrower long-term credit facility transaction. Department head Claudio Visco divides time between Rome, Milan and Verona.

Paul Hastings LLP’s recent work includes advising Internos Global Investors, a pan-European owner-managed real estate fund manager, on the financing of the acquisition of the NH Hotel Turin Santo Stefano. Structured finance expert Alberto Del Din divides time between Milan and London.

Pavia e Ansaldo recently acted for Bruni Glass on a financing with Banca Popolare di Milano and UniCredit. Rome-based Mario Di Giulio and Roberto Zanchi in Milan are recommended.

Rome-based shipping finance expert Furio Samela heads the banking and finance department at Studio Legale Associato a Watson Farley & Williams, which assisted a private equity firm with the refinancing of an acquisition financing agreement. Milan and Rome-based Italy managing partner Eugenio Tranchino is ‘a skilled and professional lawyer, who is a good problem solver’; project finance specialist Pierpaolo Mastromarini is ‘a highly focused professional’; and Milan-based Francesco Dialti is also an experienced adviser.


Lender or arranger side

Index of tables

  1. Banking and finance: lender or arranger side
  2. Other recommended firms
  3. Leading individuals
  4. Next generation lawyers

Leading individuals

  1. 1

Next generation lawyers

  1. 1

Who Represents Who

Find out which law firms are representing which Lender or arranger side clients in Italy using The Legal 500's new comprehensive database of law firm/client relationships. Instantly search over 925,000 relationships, including over 83,000 Fortune 500, 46,000 FTSE350 and 13,000 DAX 30 relationships globally. Access is free for in-house lawyers, and by subscription for law firms. For more information, contact david.burgess@legal500.com.

CLICK HERE TO VISIT THE WHO REPRESENTS WHO SITE

Clifford Chance handles high-end financings, with recent instructions including Rome-based head of banking and finance Giuseppe De Palma advising a consortium of banks on an investment grade lending transaction for Saipem and Saipem Finance International. Milan-based Ferdinando Poscio has ‘longstanding experience’; Charles Adams divides time between Milan and New York.

Linklaters’ financing practice covers plain vanilla investment grade transactions, highly complex leveraged deals and innovative asset financings. Practice head Andrea Arosio assisted the lenders with a €158m facility agreement, granted to Kedrion to fund a tender offer. Francesco Faldi is also recommended; Davide Mencacci relocated to the firm’s Hong Kong office.

Allen & Overy – Studio Legale Associatoshows high levels of expertise and always finds pragmatic solutions that focus on the major risks’. Head of banking Stefano Sennhauser, who is ‘a true expert with a pragmatic and problem-solving approach’, advised the lenders on the LBO financing of the acquisition of Italian gas pipeline group, Società Gasdotti Italia. Pietro Scarfone is also recommended. Milan-based real estate counsel Carlo Merisio joined from Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, while Nicholas Clark returned to the London office.

BonelliErede’s expertise encompasses acquisition, corporate and real estate finance, as well as project finance, restructuring and financial services. Group head Catia Tomasetti in Rome advised an international financial institution on the project financing of a hospital in Treviso. Milan-based Emanuela Da Rin is also highly rated.

Chiomenti Studio Legale’s highlights include Carola Antonini assisting the agent, mandated lead arrangers and lenders with a €160m facilities agreement granted to a toll road concessionaire. Milan-based Giulia Battaglia is head of finance; Luca Bonetti and Carmelo Raimondo are also recommended, together with Rome and Milan-based Gregorio Consoli, as well as Francesco Ago and Giorgio Cappelli in Rome.

Gianni, Origoni, Grippo, Cappelli & Partners’ key Milan advisers include Matteo Bragantini, projects and infrastructure head Ottaviano Sanseverino and Emanuele Grippo. Rome-based Giuseppe De Simone advised Intesa SanPaolo on the assignment of non-performing loans (NPLs) to Creditech. Eugenio Grippo, Stefano Agnoli and Matteo Gotti are also highly rated.

Legance – Avvocati Associati’s Milan-based Andrea Giannelli recently advised UniCredit and Natixis (Milan Branch) on a credit facility for ACS Dobfar. Luca Autuori is also a key contact, as are Rome-based Giandomenico Ciaramella and Emanuele Espositi, as well as Guido Iannoni Sebastianini, who splits his time between Milan and Rome. Project finance experts include Monica Colombera and Filippo Ruffato in Milan.

DLA Piper strengthened its position in the leveraged and corporate lending markets, and is regularly involved in syndicated lending. The practice assisted UniCredit and Zagrebačka banka (UniCredit’s subsidiary in Croatia) with the refinancing of two hotels and a resort. Italy finance and projects head Antonio Lombardo splits time between Milan and Rome; and Milan-based Mario D’Ovidio is head of banking and finance. Other key figures include Milan-based Francesco Ferrari, Ugo Calò and Federico Zucconi Galli Fonseca, as well as Rome-based senior partner Francesco Novelli and Giovanni Ragnoni Bosco Lucarelli.

Gattai Minoli Agostinelli & Partners recently advised UniCredit on the financing of Private Equity Partners’ buyout of Gervasoni. Riccardo Agostinelli, Gaetano Carrello, Marco Leonardi and Lorenzo Vernetti are recommended. New structured finance head Emanuela Campari Bernacchi joined from Legance – Avvocati Associati.

Latham & Watkins LLP’s team advised JPMorgan on the refinancing of Pirelli’s debt. Andrea Novarese is local department chair. Marcello Bragliani was elevated to partner.

Norton Rose Fulbright stands out for its financing expertise in the energy, infrastructure, aviation and shipping sectors, in addition to which Arturo Sferruzza advised Deutsche Bank on an export credit facility to Telecom Italia. Mario Lisanti and Gennaro Mazzuoccolo are also recommended.

Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe recently advised a lender on a real estate acquisition financing deal. Rome and Milan-based head of finance Patrizio Messina is recommended along with energy and infrastructure project finance expert Raul Ricozzi, Rome-based Marco Zechini and special counsel Dorothy de Rubeis, who divides time between Milan and Rome.

White & Case (Europe) LLP recently advised a syndicate of banks including BNP Paribas, UniCredit and Banca IMI on a €180m term financing to Rina for the acquisition of Edif Group. Iacopo Canino and Michael Immordino are recommended. Nicholas Lasagna joined Studio Legale Associato in affiliation with Simmons & Simmons LLP.

Ashurst’s practice advised a syndicate of banks on an up-to €2.6bn financing of the construction of a toll road. Milan-based Italy head Franco Vigliano is well known for project financing, PPP and PFI deals; Carloandrea Meacci is also a project finance specialist. Gianluca Fanti joined White & Case (Europe) LLP.

Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer’s Milan-based Corrado Angelelli, ‘an outstanding professional who is always available’, recently advised Banca IMI, UniCredit and Natixis on a €214m refinancing of Fondo Spazio Industriale, a real estate fund. Emiliano Conio ‘sees through complex issues and comes up with useful solutions’.

Hogan Lovells Studio Legale regularly advises on real estate and trade commodity finance, as well as substantial transactions in acquisition, shipping and other asset finance. Milan-based Carlo Massini advised an international syndicate of lenders on a high-value acquisition finance facility.

NCTM Studio Legale’s Milan-based banking and finance head Stefano Padovani recently advised Santander Private Banking on the transfer of four credit portfolios to Santander Consumer Bank. Rome-based Eugenio Siragusa and Giorgio Telarico are key contacts in Rome, with Corrado Verna and Giovanni De’ Capitani di Vimercate being names to note in Milan.

Pedersoli Studio Legale’s recent highlights include advising a syndicate of banks on the €70m refinancing of the financial indebtedness of Salmoiraghi & Viganò. Maura Magioncalda, ‘a calm but very skilled lawyer who masters complicated negotiations’, is recommended for acquisition, corporate and real estate finance transactions. Alessandro Fosco Fagotto joined Dentons.

Studio Legale Associato in affiliation with Simmons & Simmons LLP focuses on leveraged and corporate acquisition finance, real estate finance, and distressed debt and restructuring. Davide D’Affronto assisted BPM with Progressio’s acquisition financing for Giorgetti. Fabrizio Dotti is highly rated and Nicholas Lasagna joined from White & Case (Europe) LLP. All named lawyers are based in Milan.

Studio Professionale Associato a Baker & McKenzie recently advised Rabobank (Milan Branch) on the granting of a credit facility to Massimo Zanetti Beverage Group. Alberto Fornari is recommended and the team recently hired Milan-based counsel Carlo Lichino from Clifford Chance.

CMSPaolo Bonolisgives straight-to-the-point advice’. The team assisted Aareal Bank with the restructuring of a €169m loan, granted to an Italian development and construction company.

Caiazzo Donnini Pappalardo & Associati – CDP Studio Legale recently advised BNL-Gruppo BNP Paribas and Banca Popolare di Milano on a facility agreement with Comdata. Rome-based Giulio Tognazzi is recommended.

Carnelutti Studio Legale Associato’s highlights included department head Marco Lantelme assisting Intesa Sanpaolo and Banca IMI with the rescheduling of Canepa’s indebtedness. Claudio Lichino is also highly rated.

Eversheds Sutherland Associazione Professionale recently advised UniCredit on an acquisition financing granted to Spencer Holding. Milan-based Marco Franzini is recommended.

Grimaldi SL LLP’s key matters included assisting Banca IMI, Intesa Sanpaolo, UniCredit, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena and Banca Popolare di Milano Società Cooperativa with a €400m facility agreement for Tecnimont. Milan-based Carmine Oncia is the key name.

At Jones Day, Francesco Squerzoni recently advised ING Bank (Milan Branch) on the credit agreements and related refinancing of a retail park.

Macchi di Cellere Gangemi regularly acts on project finance and the refinancing of projects in the energy, infrastructure and water utility sectors. Department head Claudio Visco is based in Rome, Milan and Verona.

Shearman & Sterling LLP recently advised Blackstone Real Estate Debt Funds, as lender, on the financing of an acquisition of a real estate portfolio. Milan-based Tobia Croff and counsel Valerio Fontanesi are highly rated.

Rome-based shipping finance expert Furio Samela heads the banking and finance department at Studio Legale Associato a Watson Farley & Williams, which includes project finance specialist Pierpaolo Mastromarini. Milan-based Francesco Dialti advised Iccrea BancaImpresa on the financing of Vremar’s acquisition of a vessel.


Interview with...

Law firm partners and practice heads explain how their firms are adapting to clients' changing needs

International comparative guides

Giving the in-house community greater insight to the law and regulations in different jurisdictions.

Select Practice Area

GC Powerlist -
Europe

Press releases

The latest news direct from law firms. If you would like to submit press releases for your firm, send an email request to

Legal Developments in Italy

Legal Developments and updates from the leading lawyers in each jurisdiction. To contribute, send an email request to

Press Releases worldwide

The latest news direct from law firms. If you would like to submit press releases for your firm, send an email request to