The Legal 500



Legal market overview

Turkey experienced a decline in transactional activity but has continued to attract interest from foreign investors. The energy sector’s ongoing privatisation and expansion has attracted significant attention as the Turkish government seeks to solve the country’s energy deficit. The technology and telecoms, construction and real estate sectors are also increasingly active.

In the legal market, foreign-domestic tie ups remain in vogue in order to work around Turkey’s attorneyship law which prohibits foreign law firms from practising Turkish law. Foreign law firms with offices in the country advise on international law and use co-operation agreements with Turkish law firms to provide clients with local legal representation. Among some of the well-established international firms teaming with local counterparts, White & Case Müsavirlik Limited Sirketi has close working relationships with both Akol Avukatlik Bürosu and Çakmak Avukatlik Bürosu. The alliance between YükselKarkinKüçük Attorney Partnership and DLA Piper Danismanlik Hizmetleri Avukatlik Ortakligi has drawn much attention, and has shored up the former’s already strong position across a number of practice areas. Independent firms such as Pekin & Pekin, Birsel Law Office, Paksoy and Hergüner Bilgen Özeke are highly respected and have impressive client followings. Notably, Bezen & Partners opened its new Ankara office in 2013 to add to its existing location in Istanbul.

A number of other firms are also notable on a sector-specific basis: BTS & Partners, for example, is a clear leader in IT and telecoms matters. Akinci Law Office is notable for arbitration, as is ELIG, Attorneys-at-Law for competition law, and Mehmet Gün & Partners for intellectual property law.

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Legal Developments in Turkey

Legal Developments and updates from the leading lawyers in each jurisdiction. To contribute, send an email request to
  • TTIP: The Issue of Investor to State Dispute Settlements

    The benefits that will the TTIP bring in to the table for both of the signatories across the Atlantic are well documented by the Atlantic Community. Generation of a volume trade that amounts a USD$ 1.2 billion and the expansion of the already existing transatlantic trade accompanied by the removal of non-tariff barriers as well as cheaper prices for the consumers and common standards for the producers that would give a leeway for them in fierce global competition by declining production costs. However the other side of the coin points to possible pitfalls for the TTIP like a requirement for a painstaking process of harmonization of two different legal systems and possible discords regarding the inclusion and exclusion of some specific sectors in to the agreement. However one of those prospective challenges has increasingly coming to the fore and lately being discussed among the pundits as one of the most troublesome among the others. This is the point concerning the investor to state dispute settlements ( ISDS )
  • Limited Company Expenses in Turkey

    1. Limited Companies Establishment Expenses
  • Capital Movements Circular

    The Central Bank of the Turkey announced several amendments to the Capital Movements Circular with the Circular numbered 2013/YB-7 dated 29.03.2013. According to the new legislation, in case a Turkish company with foreign shareholders intends to increase its capital, the money sent by the foreign shareholders shall be recorded in the books as the "capital increase amount" instead of "capital advance" until the registration of the capital increase to the Trade Registry Office.

    Liaison offices are regulated in the Foreign Direct Investment Law ("FDI") numbered 4875 and Regulation for Implementation of Foreign Direct Investment Law ("RIFDI") issued based on FDI. According to article 3(h) of the RIFDI, the Undersecreteriat of Treasury ("Undersecreteriat") is authorized to permit foreign companies established under the laws of foreign countries to open liaison offices, provided that they do not engage in commercial activities in Turkey. In other words, liaison offices cannot engage in income generating activities. Liaison offices do not have any aspects other than salary payments made to the employees working in these offices.

    According to the Turkish Law, they are 5 types of construction related taxes which are;

    Squeeze-out and sell-out rights in Turkish public companies are regulated by the Communiqué on Squeeze-Out and Sell-Out Rights (the " Communiqué ") published in the Official Gazette dated 2 January 2014 effective as of 1 July 2014. The Communiqué was issued by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey (the " CMB ") in accordance with the Capital Markets Law and regulates the right to squeeze-out minority shareholders by the controlling shareholder and the minority shareholders' rights to exit the public company by selling their shares to the majority shareholder.
    - Paksoy
  • Integration of US and Europe Energy Markets: TTIP and Global Energy Trading Projection

    Shale gas revolution has been driving US energy market by increasing economic and industrial competitiveness. Today, shale gas has gained acceptance as "bonanza" which triggered slump in gas prices and sparked off widening the energy gap between US and Europe. US gas export is forecasted to bemounted up 6 billion cubic feet per day signifying UK's daily demand in winter as of 2020. At this stage, a potential oil and gas trade between US and EU will become an inevitable pace for world energy supply-demand balance.
  • Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: How should Turkey Cope with the Changing Dynamics?

    The free trade agreement, known with its acronym TTIP , currently being negotiated between the United States and the European Union is expected to have immense legal implications as well as commercial ones for the signatories. The numbers are self explanatory; two blocks when combined together produces almost half the world's GDP and around one third of the total world trade. The bilateral trade across the Atlantic has already exceeded USD 3.7 trillion. For these two economic giants to sign such a deal mean a monumental shift in world economic balances. As the United States and the European Union are expected to benefit significantly from such shift, the countries that will be left out will have to face a new legal regime that would cover the entire jurisdiction producing half of the world's GDP.
  • Bright Future Of Solar Power Market In Turkey

    In recent years renewable energy market development became primary energy strategy of Turkish government with the intention of improving energy efficiency and decreasing energy import dependency. Particularly, solar power seems as fundamental resource  of electricity generation in the near future. In terms of insolation Turkey possesses high potential among European countries.
  • Civil Aviation in Turkey: A Fine Balance Between Growth and Regulatory Tendencies

    General Framework

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