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Jurisprudence has provided two different decisions in identical case matter, namely the contracting authority's right (or the lack thereof) to disclose information regarded as a trade secret by the economic operator. The regional court in Łódź decided in 2004 that the contracting authority is bound by the economic operator's stipulation regarding confidentiality of some of the information contained in the offer. It may accept it or may reject the offer, but it has no right to disclose it. In 2005 the Supreme Court of the Republic of Poland declared something completely to the contrary in its resolution: the contracting authority has the right to disclose information which does not satisfy statutory conditions of a trade secret. Is the Supreme Court right and does its resolution constitute the final word in this matter? In my opinion, the resolution in fact only raises more doubts.
Since middle of May, a new act on LLP companies is in force in Guernsey, providing unique opportunities for tax planning.
Creation of something out of nothing, based on nothing, guaranteed by no one, persuading people that this something is worth anything - we wonder how much longer it will last and how many people will be worse off because of it.
New rules of statutory warranty bring longer deadlines and significantly alter the buyer's rights.
An employee or job applicant has the right to refuse to provide certain information. For example, a woman doesn't have to admit she is expecting a baby. Neither does she need to reveal what her father or husband does.
Business activity in Poland may be conducted in forms similar to those found in other European countries. Available types of business activity include: 1.1 commercial companies comprising: 1.1.1 corporations (limited liability company and joint-stock company); 1.1.2 partnerships (general partnership, limited liability partnership, limited partnership, limited joint-stock partnership); 1.2 branch offices of a foreign company; 1.3 representative offices of a foreign company; 1.4 individual business activity (also as part of a civil partnership). Cooperatives, associations, foundations and cross-border vehicles such as the European Company, or the European Economic Interest Grouping, which may also be used in conducting business in Poland, are not covered by this study. Read the full study here , prepared at the request of Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency (PAIiIZ).
The Committee for Preparation of Amendments in the Bankruptcy and Restructuring Law, which was appointed by the Ministry of Justice, has recently prepared guidelines for the bill of a new restructuring law. It should be underlined that restructuring proceedings (often confused with bankruptcy proceedings) concern only entrepreneurs threatened with insolvency, but not yet insolvent, and the purpose of them is to make such entrepreneurs capable of conducting business activity.
Because it has never been clearly defined in any legal regulations, sponsorship can be classified in different ways from the tax point of view.