Firm Profile > Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy > Cairo, Egypt

Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy

Banking and finance Tier 1

'The firm has a more personable approach to deals and to the client' remarks a client of Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy, adding that 'it deals in a very professional manner, but adds a more human touch to the interactions, seldom observed with other local or international law firms'. The practice, led by Mahmoud Bassiouny, acts for local and international lenders in cross-border finance transactions and the local debt market transactions, notably in the energy, infrastructure, transport and real estate sectors. Senior associate Nadia Abdallah and counsel Ashraf Hendi are also recommended.

Practice head(s):

Mahmoud Bassiouny

Other key lawyers:

Nadia Abdallah; Ashraf Hendi


‘The team has very strong knowledge of Egyptian law requirements for project financing especially when it comes to the details of the security package and security perfection.’

‘Diversity – I see many young, very smart individuals on the assigned team for the deal, especially young women.’

‘The firm has a more personable approach to deals and to the client. It deals in a very professional manner, but adds a more human touch to the interactions seldom observed with other local or international law firms I have dealt with.’

Key clients

Dubai Aerospace (DAE)

Cairo 3A

Hassan Allam Holding

Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank PJSC

Mashreq Bank PSC

Coca Cola Bottling Company in Egypt S.A.E.

Middle East Glass Manufacturing Company S.A.E.

Lekela Egypt Wind Power BOO S.A.E.

Industrial and Commercial Bank of China

Export Development Canada

First Abu Dhabi Bank PJSC

Agence Française De Developpement (AFD)

LEONI Wiring Systems

Egyptian Maintenance Company

Arab African International Bank

DP World

Sonker Bunkering Company S.A.E.

Commercial, corporate and M&A Tier 1

Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy is known for representing high-profile clients in some of the largest domestic and cross-border transactions in the market. A prime example is the largest such transaction in the MENA region, the ADNOC-OCI JV that saw the $5bn combination of major fertiliser companies. Practice heads Omar Bassiouny and Tamer El Hennawy along with a deep bench of partners, among them Amr Baggatto, frequently handle market-leading transactions in key sectors such as oil and gas, life sciences, real estate, FMCG and education.

Practice head(s):

Omar Bassiouny; Tamer El Hennawy

Other key lawyers:

Amr Baggatto

Key clients

CDC Group

KBBO Group

EFG Hermes

Tana Africa


National Energy Services Reunited


Gulf Capital







Nation Builders Capital

Dispute resolution: arbitration Tier 1

Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy has two lead partners who are highly respected by clients and peers alike. John Matouk and Amr Abbas lead a 17-lawyer practice that has a high profile in high-stakes matters in domestic and foreign arbitration fora, with its work covering key sectors such as telecoms, energy, hospitality, pharmaceuticals, cement and construction. The firm has the largest dispute resolution team in Egypt, and one of the largest in the MENA region handling arbitration and litigation, and has a high success rate that it maintained by securing a EGP200m arbitral award for Reliance Heavy Industries.

Practice head(s):

John Matouk; Amr Abbas

Key clients

Union Fenosa Gas S.A.

Reliance Heavy Industries S.A.E. (RHI)

International Holding Project Group and Other Kuwaiti Investors

Nogoom Football Club (NFC)

Spanish Egyptian Gas Company (“SEGAS”)

Inertia Development

Dispute resolution: litigation Tier 1

The litigation team is really good at translating the local legal issues for an international client', says a client of Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy. Known for handling high-profile litigation in sectors as diverse as telecoms, energy, hospitality, pharmaceuticals and automotive, the firm has a track record of success in representing both domestic and international companies. The practice led by John Matouk and head of litigation Mohamed Shehata also has extensive experience in representing major US clients on FCPA-related investigations, product liability cases and tax disputes. Counsels Momen Rezk and the 'responsive and decisive' Mohamed Omar are also recommended.

Practice head(s):

John Matouk; Mohamed Shehata

Other key lawyers:

Momen Rezk; Mohamed Omar


‘The litigation team is really good at translating the local legal issues for an international client. Their work is about solving the client’s problem in a pragmatic way with the best possible outcome. ’

‘Mohamed Omar is very responsive and enjoyable to work with. Excellent combination of legal expertise and business mindset. He was decisive in getting us an excellent deal and then pushing it through. ’

‘Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy is a remarkable law firm, the team is a detail-oriented partner who never loses sight of the strategic objective. The work has always been excellent.’

‘I found Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy very professional and efficient in the matter on which I instructed them and would have no hesitation in recommending the firm. The people are very experienced and very responsive to our inquiries.’

‘I find it a very good practice in terms of understanding the client’s needs, following up on work progress and providing timely updates on relevant matters. I find it unique in terms of experience and legal knowledge. ’

‘The individuals that I work with are competent, experienced and understand the needs of the client. They attend to the client’s needs in a timely manner. They value the client.’

Key clients

Major International Apparel Manufacturer

Skoda Auto (Volkswagen Group)



Egyptian Resorts Company

Etisalat Misr

Gemini Global Development Egypt

Danone Nutricia


TCI Sanmar Chemicals

Commercial Bank International PSC

FCC Construction


Alcazar Energy Egypt Solar

Energy Tier 1

Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy is well versed in all aspects of the energy sector, including projects, transactions and disputes relating to oil & gas, conventional and renewable power, gas pipelines and transmission and distribution assets. Mahmoud Bassiouny is the only partner in the finance and projects group to focus on energy, but he is backed up by a large team of associates that combine expertise in commercial, industrial and finance matters for lenders, developers and corporates. Its work for Lekela Egypt Wind Power BOO is testament to its growing role in renewable energy projects.

Practice head(s):

Mahmoud Bassiouny

Key clients

Lekela Egypt Wind Power BOO SAE

El Sewedy Electric

Future Clean Energy

Pharos Energy (Formerly, SOCO International plc)

Alcazar Energy Partners

Total EREN

Ib vogt GmbH


Maridive Offshore Projects

Shapoorji Pallonji Infrastructure Capital Company

National Petroleum Construction Company PJSC


Union Fenosa Gas

Spanish Egyptian Gas Company S.A.E

Maridive Oil & Services

Projects and infrastructure Tier 1

The practice at Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy is known for being 'extremely professional and yet compassionate and understanding at the same time'. The firm represents local and international developers in commercial, industrial and developmental projects in several sectors. Of note is its recent work in renewable energy, having worked on numerous 50MW solar plants under the Feed in Tariff programme. Mahmoud Bassiouny leads the practice, which also acts for port developers. Counsel Ashraf Hendi and associates Ahmed Agamy and Nadia Abdallah are also active in project finance.

Practice head(s):

Mahmoud Bassiouny

Other key lawyers:

Ashraf Hendi; Ahmed Agamy; Nadia Abdallah


‘The team’s strength is in its constant availability to address any of the client’s needs.’

‘The individuals I have personally dealt with are extremely professional and yet compassionate and understanding at the same time.’

‘Nadia Abdallah is a star associate in my opinion. No matter what time of the day or what day of the week, she is responsive to any question, very professional and ready with the answers.’

Key clients

Future Clean Energy

Lekela Egypt Wind Power BOO SAE

Alcazar Energy Partners

National Petroleum Construction Company PJSC

Export Development Canada

Sonker Bunkering Company SAE

DP World

TMT Tier 1

Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy is a prominent player in the telecoms sector, having been instructed by mobile operator Etisalat Misr to handle day-to-day matters and disputes. It also advises major operators on regulatory matters. The firm also handles extensive media work for multinational companies, among them Sony Pictures. Mohamed ShehataOmar Bassiouny, John Matouk and corporate partner Hazem El Guindi lead the practice, in which litigator Amr Abbas, who is 'an expert on competition law issues and provides insightful advice', also plays a key role.

Practice head(s):

Mohamed Shehata; Omar Bassiouny; John Matouk; Hazem El Guindi

Other key lawyers:

Amr Abbas


‘Amr Abas is an expert on competition law issues and provides insightful advice’.

‘Amr Abas has provided us with detailed advice on issues concerning competition law procedures.’

Key clients

Etisalat Misr

Delivery Hero




Sony Pictures

Halan for Technology and Services

NBK Capital Partners


Employment Tier 2

'I have always found them responsive, legally sound and helpful, especially for US multinationals', remarks a client of Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy. The firm handles the full range of employment work from drafting of contracts to terminations, secondments and litigation, as well as advising on incentive packages. It frequently assists international businesses on their dealings with governmental authorities including the Ministry of Manpower and Immigration, the Social Insurance Authority, the Tax Authority and the Labor Office. Tamer El Hennawy, Omar Bassiouny and counsel Tamer Fawki are the main contacts.

Practice head(s):

Tamer El Hennawy; Tamer Fawki

Other key lawyers:

Omar Bassiouny


‘I work a lot with Matouk and have always found them responsive, legally sound and helpful, especially for US multinationals. I mainly work with Omar Bassiouny.’

Key clients







Hassan Allam


Projects of Mounir Nakhla

DLA Piper UK

DLA Piper US

Intellectual property Tier 2

Matouk Bassiouny & Hennawy continues to build up the portfolio of work for its dedicated IP practice, which was launched in 2017. As well as handling the IP aspects of large corporate transactions, the firm handles due diligence exercises and portfolio management for clients in sectors including agriculture, software development, food and beverage, tourism and renewable energy. Omar Bassiouny, Tamer El Hennawy and legal director Menna Elsherif are the lead practitioners. They count Netflix and Acino among their clients.

Practice head(s):

Omar Bassiouny; Tamer El Hennawy; Menna Elsherif


‘We appreciate the client focus of the lawyer in charge.’

Key clients

Si-Ware Systems Private free Zone Company



Transport for Cairo




Simon Associes



The firm: Matouk Bassiouny was officially established in 2002 as a partnership between John Matouk and Omar Salah Bassiouny; and became part of DLA Piper’s global network of offices shortly afterwards.

Since establishment, the firm has been providing full legal services to clients in corporate and M&A matters; banking and project finance; capital market matters; as well as dispute resolution, whether in litigation or arbitration.

The firm is now an independent law firm, and has significantly grown as regards the number of lawyers and clientele size, with a leading position in Egypt and regionally; and has built on its name and expanded by opening offices in Dubai, UAE, and Khartoum, Sudan. The firm also has offices in Algeria and Libya.

Areas of practice
Corporate and M&A: The Corporate/M&A group can assist with all aspects of corporate transaction, from initial term sheets and due diligence to negotiations, drafting and completion. The team specializes in providing general corporate and M&A advice to a wide range of multinational corporations, private equity firms, fund managers and blue-chip investors in Egypt and the region.

Capital markets: The Capital markets group specializes in securities-related transactions involving the Egyptian Exchange and the Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority (including bond issuings), funds management, IPOs, listing and dual securities listing.

Dispute resolution: The Dispute resolution group’s primary goal is to effectively manage risk and resolve disputes pursuant to our client’s strategic interests – be it through amicable negotiation, litigation and arbitration.

Finance and projects: The Finance  and projects group has substantial experience in providing local legal advice on asset-based finance, infrastructure finance, project finance and real estate finance, as well as on the strengths and weaknesses of local security available to lenders in the Egyptian market.

Department Name Email Telephone
Corporate and M&A Omar Salah Bassiouny (Founding Partner and Head of Corporate/M&A)
Corporate and M&A Tamer El Hennawy (Partner and Co-Head of Corporate and M&A)
Capital Markets Mohamed Abd El Fattah (Partner and Head of Capital Markets)
Dispute Resolution John Matouk (Partner and Head of Dispute Resolution)
Finance and Projects Mahmoud Bassiouny (Managing Partner, Head of Finance and Projects)
Partners : 16
Fee Earners : 137
Support Staff : 82



Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East and the third most populous in Africa, with over 100 million inhabitants. Egypt occupies a strategic position. It is in the heart of the MENA region and is a major country in both the Arab world and Africa. Egypt has one of the largest and most diversified economies in the Middle East, which is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. It has the third-largest economy in Africa and the world’s 40th-largest economy by nominal GDP.

The Egyptian economy suffered from a severe downturn following the 2011 and 2013 revolutions, which ousted former Presidents Hosni Mubarak and Mohamed Morsi respectively. These revolutions led to a notable fall in foreign investments and foreign currency cash reserves. However, the country’s economy started to reach a state of stability since the Egyptian military announced the political roadmap in July 2013.


In January 2014, the Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a referendum and replaced the Egyptian Constitution of 2012, which came into effect under Morsi. In June 2014, Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi was elected President of the Arab Republic of Egypt and re-elected in March 2018. The Egyptian parliament was constituted in December 2015. Another constitutional referendum was passed in April 2019 adding two new articles to the constitution and fourteen amendments, most notably extending the presidential term.



The Egyptian economy is gaining momentum since the government has been strongly promoting economic reforms.

In March 2015, President Al-Sisi hosted the Egypt Economic Development Conference (EEDC) in Sharm El Sheikh to highlight Egypt’s reform agenda, which attracted heads of states and multinational chief executives. During the conference, Egypt concluded deals up to USD 36 billion with foreign investors.


During the EEDC, Al-Sisi also presented his plan to establish a new Egyptian capital city. The new capital city’s purpose is to create many business opportunities for national and foreign investors. According to official statements, the government shall be transferred to the new capital city gradually between 2021 and 2022.



Egypt expanded the Suez Canal in 2015. The purpose of the expansion was to boost the Egyptian economy by allowing the passage of more and bigger ships. The Suez Canal has always been one of the most important pillars of Egypt’s economy as it represents a significant source of revenue.


As a result of the government’s efforts to improve its economy, the GDP growth rate increased to 5.6% during the financial year 2019 compared to GDP rate of 5.3% for the financial year 2018.


According to the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), the unemployment rate decreased to 7.5% during the second quarter of 2019. The current rate shows a remarkable progress as the unemployment rate was 13% in 2015.



The Egyptian legal system is based on the civil law system. Its most important legislation is the Civil Code, which mirrors principles of the Napoleonic code. It also adopts Islamic law principles in specific areas, such as family law and personal status matters.  In recent years, many of Egypt’s investment-related laws were reformed.

Companies Law Reform

In January 2018, Law no. 4/2018 amending the Companies Law was issued. Among other amendments, the aforementioned law introduced the sole person company for the first time. The sole person company is owned by one person, either a natural or a juristic person, who retains all the management powers. The minimum share capital of a sole person company is EGP 50,000 to be paid in full upon incorporation. The sole person company is essentially a limited liability company with one shareholder who is only liable within the limits of the capital of the company, except in limited cases where the corporate veil of the sole person company may be pierced.

New Investment Law

The new Investment Guarantees and Incentives Law no. 72/2017 (the “Investment Law”) was issued in May 2017 and further established and consolidated the one-stop shop system that enables investors to obtain permits and licenses directly from the General Authority for Investment and Free Zones (GAFI) instead of multiple government entities.

The Investment Law guarantees fair and equitable treatment to both foreign and Egyptian investors. Additionally, it grants the right to the Cabinet of Ministers, in light of the reciprocity principle, to grant favourable treatment to foreign investors. Its purpose is to facilitate the investment process and to provide investors with more effective services. It grants investors the right of residence, protection from expropriation, repatriation of profits, and importation of raw materials, production supplies, machinery, spare parts, and transportation means required for their activities. The Investment Law also aims to attract more investments in Egypt through offering further incentives and guarantees in certain sectors or regions.


This new Investment Law improved the corporate veil protection shielding senior executives from prosecution and offered new mechanisms for the settlement of investment disputes to encourage amicable settlement with the government (through the establishment of three separate committees).


Tax Law Reform

Presidential Decree 96/2015 was issued in August 2015, amending the Egyptian Income Tax Law as follows:

All locally registered companies are subject to a flat rate corporation tax of 22.5% on their net profits, with the exception of companies incorporated in a free zone. A higher rate of 40.55% applies to companies engaging in specific oil and gas activities.


The annual profit generated by a branch is subject to taxes according to the applicable taxation legislation in Egypt. Personal income tax is also payable in Egypt, on a sliding scale.


Personal Data Privacy Law

The Egyptian Parliament approved a new data protection law on February 24, 2020. The law will be published in the official gazette upon the President’s ratification. The new law defines personal data and sensitive data.

The new law sets out obligations on data controllers and processors concerning the required consent of individuals and legitimacy of collection and processing. The new law grants individuals a number of rights pertaining to their data such as the right of providing explicit consent on data collection and processing, rescinding consent, correction and erasing their data as well as the right to be informed of any breach thereto.

The new law includes establishing the Personal Data Privacy Centre as the regulator of data privacy, the mandate of which will include issuing licenses, ensuring compliance with the new law, and investigating complaints.

Anticipated Reforms

The Parliament is discussing a draft law proposing amendments to the law no. 67/2010 of public-private partnership (PPP). The draft law adds the operation and utilization of existing projects to the scope of PPP projects, and presents new methods of awarding projects other than public tenders. In addition, the proposed amendments cut red tape such as the prequalification requirement and restrict the mandate of the petition committee.

On the other hand, the Cabinet approved a draft law amending the banking law. The law will be introduced to the State Council and the Parliament for discussion and approval. The draft law, if passed, will include for example: (i) increasing the minimum capital requirements for banks; (ii) licensing e-payment and fintech businesses; (iii) authorizing the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) to regulate cryptocurrencies; and (iv) requiring all banks’ fiscal years to start in January.


Egypt is a party to 112 bilateral investment treaties and is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA).


In 1998, Egypt became a party to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).


Egypt has signed a treaty with the European Union called the Association Agreement, in force since 2004, which establishes a free trade area with elimination of tariffs on industrial and agricultural products.


Investment Vehicles

The most common corporate entities established or acquired by foreign investors in Egypt are the limited liability company (LLC) and the joint stock company (JSC).

Joint Stock Companies

Generally, joint stock companies must be formed with a minimum share capital of EGP 250,000. The minimum required capital amount may be higher depending on the activity of the company and the regulations related thereto. Only 10% must be paid at the time of incorporation, to be increased to 25% within 3 months, and the remaining amount of the nominal value of the shares is to be paid up within 5 years.

At least three founding shareholders and at least three directors must be appointed in the company.  Directors are required to hold regular meetings, which provides for higher level of corporate governance. It is easier for a JSC to raise funds, as its shares can be offered to the public and traded on the Egyptian Exchange.

Founding shares and shares issued in return for in-kind (i.e. non-cash) contributions may not be transferred until the financial statements of two full fiscal years are published. The Prime Minister can waive the above restrictions in relation to joint stock companies established under the Investment Law.
Directors and shareholders need not be Egyptian nationals, unless the company carries out one of the restricted activities set out below. Forming an Egyptian joint stock company takes five business days as of the date of submitting all documents in good order to the competent authority.
Limited Liability Companies

Limited liability companies have no minimum share capital requirements. Limited liability companies do not have a Board of Directors, but are managed by one or more managers who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the company and have full authority for representing it. A limited liability company must have at least two founding partners. There is no nationality restriction on the partners or managers except for the companies carrying out certain activities as noted below. As with a joint stock company, forming an Egyptian limited liability company takes five business days as of the date of submitting all documents in good order to the competent authority.



Foreign companies may establish branches in Egypt. The branch’s purpose is the performance of a particular contract entered into by the mother company. That contract must be submitted as part of the incorporation procedures.


There is no minimum legal capital for branches, however in practice the equivalent of a minimum of EGP 5,000 must be transferred in foreign currency to a bank account in Egypt in the name of the branch.


Representative offices

Foreign companies can establish representation, liaison or scientific offices in Egypt. There is no requirement for the manager of such offices to be Egyptian. Representative offices are prohibited from performing any kind of commercial or income generating activity and can be removed from the register for doing so.


Representative offices must notify the GAFI annually of the names, positions, nationalities and salaries of their staff members as well as their total wages, the percentage of the Egyptian staff’s wages and the work that those offices assumed.


No minimum capital is required, but in practice, the equivalent of a minimum of EGP 5,000 must be transferred in foreign currency to a bank account in Egypt in the name of the representative office.


Except for wages withholding taxes, the representative office is not subject to taxes since it does not generate profits from commercial activities and its activity is limited to studying and exploring the Egyptian market.



In principle, there are no nationality restrictions in connection with foreign investment in Egypt. However, specific activities such as commercial agency and importation with the purpose of trade include nationality requirements. Certain regulatory approvals are required for foreign and local investments in Egyptian banks and insurance companies exceeding 10% of the issued shares. Foreign ownership of land is restricted in the Sinai Peninsula.

Sector-specific controls

Licenses and government approvals are required to establish a business in Egypt. Regulatory approvals are required for acquisitions and disposals in the banking, insurance, hospitals, pharmaceutical plants, oil and gas, and telecommunication sectors.


The Egyptian Competition Authority (ECA) ensures free competition in the market by prohibiting anticompetitive practices and serves consumer and producer interests.


The Egyptian Competition law was enacted in 2005 and regulates horizontal and vertical restraints, cases of abuse of dominance and cartels.  It also provides an exhaustive list of prohibited agreements.


The ECA may exempt agreements relating to horizontal restraints if their objective is to attain economic efficiency and if the benefit arising from them exceeds the harm to the freedom of competition.


New amendments to the law were made in 2014 granting automatic immunity from prosecution to the first whistle-blower who reports the existence and submits evidence of cartels to the ECA.


M&A transactions

Notifications must be made to the ECA, within 30 days of the conclusion of the relevant commercial agreement and if the turnover of the respective parties exceeds certain thresholds. Clearance is not required and there is no obligation to suspend.


Where the COMESA merger regime applies, notification is mandatory and must be made within 30 days of the parties’ decision to merge. There is no obligation to suspend.





Following the revolution of 2011, Egypt suffered from budget deficits, shortage in foreign currency, downgrading its credit rating, steep rise of inflation and unemployment rates, and fall of tourism revenues, which is the country’s top source of foreign currency earnings.


In November 2016, Egypt received $12 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund, the fifth and final tranche was received in July 2019. As a result, Egypt adopted bold measures as part of its economic reform program such as floating Egyptian Pound, cutting energy subsidies, and introducing new value-added tax (VAT).


As a result, the foreign currency reserve significantly increased to reach $45.42 billion by December 2019, meanwhile, the Egyptian Pound exchange rate remains relatively stable with a slight upward trend.


Interest Rates

After interest rates peaked at 18.75% in 2017, the CBE decreased the interest rate gradually to reach 12.25% in November 2019. In March 2020, the CBE declared cutting interest rate by 300 basis points to reach 9.25%, which is the lowest rate since early 2016, to support the economy against the COVID-19 outbreak.


Credit Ratings

Egypt’s credit ratings have been upgraded to B, B2 and B+ by Standard & Poor and Moody’s,and Fitch, respectively, with stable outlook.


Economic policies adopted by Egypt, especially interest rate cuts and easing inflation, were the main drivers of upgrading the credit rating.


Inflation Rates

According to CAPMAS, Egypt inflation rate reached the lowest level in nearly a decade in October 2019 to reach 2.4% compared to 17.5% a year earlier. Despite slight fluctuations in inflation rates in the following months, CAPMAS further announced that the annual inflation rate fell to 6.8% in January 2020, compared to 12.2% in January 2019.




The Central Bank of Egypt monitors and controls the inflation rate through its monetary policies. The recent lowering of interest rate by 300 basis points in March 2020 will likely have an adverse effect on inflation rates.

Main Trade Sectors

Egypt is the world’s largest importer of wheat and one of the largest producers and exporter of potatoes, after the Netherlands, France and Germany.

The country is also known for its strong exportation of textile and steel, and raw materials.


The European Union is Egypt’s main trading partner, especially after the implementation of the Association Agreement in 2004.


Egypt mainly exports to the European Union fuel and mining products, textile and clothing and chemicals and imports machinery and transport equipment. Most of Egypt’s foreign trade is handled by Egypt’s main port, the Port of Alexandria.


On a related front, trading with African countries remains low despite Egypt being a party to COMESA. This is due to the lack of trade promotion and business knowledge, as well as problems in transport and logistics.



Oil and Gas

Egypt is a major player in the international energy market as it operates the Suez Canal and the Suez-Mediterranean pipeline. Natural gas and oil are the primary fuels for Egypt’s energy sector, which positions Egypt as the largest oil and natural gas consumer in Africa.


A specific concession is required to carry out exploration activities and to exploit oil and gas resources. Each concession agreement must be entered into following the promulgation of a specific law that allows the concession agreement to be entered into between the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Egyptian Petroleum Company and the foreign company.


In 2015, Eni discovered a giant natural gas field on the Mediterranean offshore. The reserve is estimated at 30 trillion cubic feet. As of 2020, Egypt’s proven natural gas reserve is around 77 trillion cubic feet, ranking 16th in the world. In addition, Egypt has signed a bilateral treaty with Cyprus in 2018 to build a natural gas pipeline to transport natural gas from the Aphrodite field to Egypt for liquefaction, and then re-export the liquefied natural gas.


Egypt is currently repositioning itself as a hub for natural gas between Africa and Europe through continuous coordination and joint arrangements with Cyprus and Greece.


As of August 2017, Egypt has witnessed the issuance of a new gas market activities law no. 196/2017 which aims to create a liberalised gas market, subject to the principles of free competition, non-discrimination between gas market participants and the prohibition of monopolistic practices. Accordingly, this law establishes an entity named Gas Market Activities Regulatory Authority as the regulator of the gas market, granting it broad regulatory powers over the gas market generally and to the licensing regime particularly.


Renewable Energy

Egypt set a target of generating 20% and 33.3% of its electricity from renewable resources by 2022 and 2035, respectively.



Egyptian Law no. 203/2014 created the Feed-in Tariff Program for generating electricity from solar and wind energy. Egypt has constructed Benban Solar Park which is a power complex of 41 solar power plants with capacity of 1.8GW. The project is the biggest solar photovoltaic park in the world and costed around $4 billion.


The Egyptian Government is the sole off taker of the produced energy with the tariff set by a Cabinet Decree and a new electricity law has been enacted accordingly in 2015. The land on which the projects are being developed was allocated by the Egyptian government to the qualified developers on a first-come, first-served basis.



This guide does not constitute legal advice, nor does it purport to address every legal issue or summarize the current rules, structures or regulatory frameworks.

The regulatory system in Egypt is dynamic and subject to frequent changes in application and interpretation. We recommend that you obtain legal advice and liaise with the relevant government authorities on how the law applies to foreign investors in respect of a particular investment or business activity at the relevant time.


We hope that you find this guide to be a useful overview of the high-level legal issues in relation to doing business in Egypt. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any queries regarding the material set out in this guide or if you require specific legal advice in respect of an establishment in Egypt.


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