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Leading Silks

Edward Fitzgerald CBE QC - Doughty Street ChambersHis knowledge of the law of extradition is unbeatable and no counsel can compare to him.
James Eadie QC - Blackstone ChambersA stellar member of chambers and an excellent advocate.
Lord Pannick QC - Blackstone ChambersA tremendous talent. A superstar of the Bar.
Dinah Rose QC - Blackstone ChambersIn a class of her own, totally brilliant. She is an exceptional barrister. Clear, authoritative and very co-operative in her working style. She is head and shoulders above the majority of her competitors.
Phillippa Kaufmann QC - Matrix ChambersShe is incredibly dynamic, versatile and persuasive on her feet. She is feared by opponents and respected by the courts. She is the pre-eminent counsel in this field and always in huge demand.
Karon Monaghan QC - Matrix ChambersBrilliant, absolutely compelling and trustworthy in court.
Timothy Otty QC - Blackstone ChambersA sensational and tremendous advocate, everything he says has such force you find yourself agreeing with whatever he says.
Tim Owen QC - Matrix ChambersHe has superb judgement and knows exactly how to distil a case into a written document. The court really listens to him.
Nigel Pleming QC - 39 Essex ChambersSenior public law silk who has real gravitas and is easy to work with. Absolutely superb.
Robin Allen QC - CloistersAt the cutting edge of equality law and discrimination issues. He has been instructed in some of the most authoritative cases on these matters.
Lord Anderson of Ipswich KBE QC - Brick Court ChambersHighly respected and seasoned silk.
Alex Bailin QC - Matrix ChambersFantastic advocate, he analyses the problem quickly and gives clear advice.
Paul Bowen QC - Brick Court ChambersA brilliant advocate who has a forensic memory and knowledge. Totally ace.
Monica Carss-Frisk QC - Blackstone ChambersGets to grips quickly with the details of a case.
Jason Coppel QC - 11KBWExcellent leader who is receptive and adaptable. Has the ear of the court.
Caoilfhionn Gallagher QC - Doughty Street ChambersA complete force of nature. She is exceptionally committed to the work that she does and is incredibly dynamic.
Lisa Giovannetti QC - 39 Essex ChambersA star. Gives practical advice always with an excellent grip on the detail and ability to identify what really matters – to the client and the court.
Jonathan Glasson QC - Matrix ChambersGood judgement, excellent knowledge of the law with huge experience in national security work.
Richard Hermer QC - Matrix ChambersThe Supreme Court really likes him, an excellent claimant barrister who is very calm on his feet.
Ben Jaffey QC - Blackstone ChambersHolds the government's feet to the fire on human rights issues. Absolutely brilliant.
Michael Mansfield QC - Nexus ChambersThe king of human rights work.
Angus Mccullough QC - 1 Crown Office RowHard as nails, experienced, picks only good points and fights them well.
Anthony Metzer QC - Goldsmith ChambersHighly skilled advocate on immigration and inquest matters.
Clare Montgomery QC - Matrix ChambersHighly intelligent, versatile and hugely respected by clients and the judiciary.
Helen Mountfield QC - Matrix ChambersShe has a brain the size of a planet and is a fabulous advocate. Simply superb to work with.
Matthew Ryder QC - Matrix ChambersSheer brilliance. Wonderful manner with clients despite working in complex and difficult prison law cases.
Hugh Southey QC - Matrix ChambersHugh’s breadth of experience in criminal justice issues gives him a unique perspective and very diverse knowledge base. Tenacious and hands-on.
Martin Westgate QC - Doughty Street ChambersVery clever and insightful lawyer. He has an impressive ability to analyse cases and give a concise analysis of the pertinent issues.
Heather Williams QC - Doughty Street ChambersOne of the foremost silks of her generation and is a leading light in police law.
Ian Wise QC - Monckton Chambers 'A first-rate human rights practitioner.'
Henry Blaxland QC - Garden Court ChambersWill go down as a pre-eminent barrister who was at the forefront of modern slavery law.
Nicholas Bowen QC - Doughty Street ChambersOne of the leading silks in challenging negligence in police cases. He has an enviable appellate practice and an excellent understanding of this area of law. His advocacy style is relaxed, he has an ability to engage with the court and get his point across in a calm and clear way.
Richard Clayton QC - Exchequer ChambersAn internationally respected advocate.
John Cooper QC - 25 Bedford RowA skilled advocate.
Stephen Cragg QC - Doughty Street ChambersSteve has an encyclopaedic knowledge of the law on biometric data retention. As a former solicitor, he has a keen understanding and empathy with solicitors.
Marie Demetriou QC - Brick Court ChambersExcellent on EU sanctions law, responsive and approachable. A great combination.
Dexter Dias QC - Garden Court ChambersIncredibly clever and committed to international human rights law.
Richard Drabble QC - Landmark Chambers 'One of the most highly regarded silks.'
Diana Ellis QC - 25 Bedford RowTenacious and has vast knowledge on international criminal law.
Shaheed Fatima QC - Blackstone ChambersReally superb, she fits into the Blackstone model of producing well-researched, high-quality work.
Sir Robert Francis QC - Serjeants' Inn ChambersAn incredibly skilled advocate.
Danny Friedman QC - Matrix ChambersHe has an absolute mastery of the law, a total grasp on the relevant material, and is incredibly good on his feet. He commands the respect of the court and goes the extra mile to win the client's confidence.
Manjit Gill QC - No5 Barristers ChambersA very experienced and tenacious advocate.
Sam Grodzinski QC - Blackstone ChambersSam has a superb feel for anticipating how judges will receive arguments. He is incredibly good at setting out a clear strategy and formulating successful arguments.
James Guthrie QC - 3 Hare CourtHas subtle and tactful manner in tackling sensitive issues in challenging environments.
Ivan Hare QC - Blackstone ChambersExceptionally charming and brilliant at judicial review work.
Stephanie Harrison QC - Garden Court ChambersFantastic lawyer, pushing the boundaries of protest law. She wins cases that no one else can.
John Howell QC - Blackstone ChambersHighly respected with a light courtroom manner.
Raza Husain QC - Matrix ChambersA walking encyclopaedia on human rights, migrants, and trafficking cases. There really is no-one else like him.
Jeremy Hyam QC - 1 Crown Office RowHe has an enormous grasp of the law; his written pleadings and arguments are thorough.
Schona Jolly QC - CloistersShe is fiercely intelligent and uses her formidable intellect to pursue the best practical outcome for her clients. A creative thinker, she is able to think outside the box to devise avenues of argument to get the best outcome.
Hugo Keith QC - Three Raymond BuildingsHe is a powerful advocate who is not afraid to tell the court exactly like it is but in such a way that given his reputation and background that even trenchant criticism carries considerable weight and is listened to by the tribunal in question.
Nageena Khalique QC - Serjeants' Inn Chambers ‘She is approachable and pragmatic whilst being extremely tactically astute.
Samantha Knights QC - Matrix ChambersCommands respect from opponents and the judiciary when on her feet because of her control of the case and authoritative advocacy. Great to work with.
Maya Lester QC - Brick Court ChambersThe best drafter I have ever come across. Steely advocate and is divine to work with.
Richard Lissack QC - Fountain Court ChambersHas depth of analysis and creativity of thinking.
Alison MacDonald QC - Essex Court ChambersExperienced advocate with expertise across international law and human rights.
Thomas de la Mare QC - Blackstone ChambersOne of the most creative barristers I've come across.
James Maurici QC - Landmark ChambersAble to master the most complex briefs and to give top-level advice.
Jonathan Moffett QC - 11KBWAn impressive advocate.
Aidan O’Neill QC - Matrix Chambers ‘His breadth and depth of knowledge both in the law in English law, Scottish law and European law as well as international law is simply mind boggling.
Shaheen Rahman QC - 1 Crown Office RowPersuasive and fearless advocate. The fact that her work straddles both public and private law means that she is able to advise on the best approach for the client when faced with a particular issue.
Jenni Richards QC - 39 Essex ChambersExcellent judgement, excellent strategic vision, empathetic but also tough and forthright when needed. A brilliant, inspiring leader who is hugely respected by her team.
Ian Rogers QC - Monckton ChambersExcellent on his feet and is very adept at taking clients through sensitive and complex matters. He is very hands on and is always thinking ten steps ahead.
Vikram Sachdeva QC - 39 Essex ChambersHe is simply exceptional - technical knowledge and case strategy is second to none. He is acutely aware of wider policy considerations both at national and local level and he uses them to provide advice which is not only legally sound but also practical and realistic.
Fiona Scolding QC - Landmark ChambersExceptionally good at digging in to an area and getting completely on top of the material so that she is to be able to answer any argument and respond to any issue.
Mark Shaw QC - Blackstone ChambersAbsolutely focused and provides an excellent service.
Daniel Squires QC - Matrix ChambersFantastic advocate who undertakes a wide range of human rights and terror-related work.
James Strachan QC - 39 Essex ChambersSuper-bright, always two steps ahead of everyone else in the courtroom. Because of that, his clear and measured (and perhaps a little understated) advocacy style works.
Jemima Stratford QC - Brick Court ChambersHas a supportive and intellectual approach to international human rights litigation work.
Leslie Thomas QC - Garden Court ChambersFerocious barrister who will go out of his way to fight for justice for his clients and hold the state to account. He knows the law inside and out and has the courage to raise points in court that others would not.
Marc Willers QC - Garden Court ChambersBrilliant in the linkages between human rights and climate change, and the environment.

2019 Silks

Charles Banner QC - Keating ChambersStrong and confident advocacy style. He has the ability to distill complex arguments into accessible statements.
Tim Buley QC - Landmark ChambersUncanny ability to locate the key issues in complex cases. Simply the best.
Victoria Butler-Cole QC - 39 Essex ChambersA strong counsel who is very clever, knowledgeable, practical and efficient.
Tom Hickman QC - Blackstone ChambersA fantastic leader and is extremely smart.
Charlotte Kilroy QC - Blackstone ChambersHas a very good grounding in asylum, human rights law, and jurisprudence, and offers thorough and well-thought through advice.
Mohinderpal Sethi QC - Littleton ChambersHas the ability to gain the trust and confidence of his clients; has an authoritative manner and focuses on the detail.
Victoria Wakefield QC - Brick Court ChambersWonderful to work with, super smart and leads the team in an inclusive and supportive way.

2020 Silks

David Blundell QC - Landmark ChambersA new silk who definitely should’ve been made a silk some years earlier. He is willing to take on difficult points for the government.
Aileen McColgan QC - 11KBWHer work on complex pleadings has been exceptionally good.
David Pievsky QC - Blackstone ChambersRecommended for his strategic approach to cases.
Stephen Simblet QC - Garden Court ChambersHas an unparalleled expertise in actions against the police. He has fantastic tactical nous and an effortlessly combative and effective style of advocacy.

2021 Silks

Jamie Burton QC - Doughty Street ChambersGo-to counsel for particularly complex cases involving victims of sexual violence and privacy breaches, as well as discrimination.
Chris Buttler QC - Matrix ChambersImpressively lucid and succinct, judges love his approach. He knows how to win.
Clair Dobbin QC - Three Raymond BuildingsGreat advocate and a very good opponent.
Sarah Hannett QC -Matrix ChambersCan utilise the more esoteric pieces of legislation when trying to develop arguments for novel situations.
Maya Sikand QC - Doughty Street ChambersFormidable advocate. She is very articulate and persuasive, forcefully putting her client's case, whilst at the same time getting the judge on her side.
Adam Straw QC - Doughty Street ChambersHe is unflappable in the face of unexpected or adverse developments, very strong on his feet and is a formidable opponent.
Ben Watson QC - Three Raymond BuildingsOne of the governments go-to barristers for human rights cases.

Leading Juniors

Ruth Brander - Doughty Street ChambersShe has a brilliant mind and is able to retain complicated detail going back years.
Katherine Apps - 39 Essex ChambersA cerebral and serious barrister who is super-intelligent and creative.
Nicholas Armstrong - Matrix ChambersSmart and unafraid to run his points in court.
Jude Bunting - Doughty Street ChambersA superstar in court who makes the case sing. Extremely bright and analytical.
Edward Craven - Matrix ChambersFantastic, exceptionally bright, and a really sought after junior.
Alison Gerry - Doughty Street ChambersIncredibly thorough and detailed and leaves no stone unturned in her advice. Takes on new and untested areas of law and is formidable in court.
Anthony Jones - 4 New SquareThe quality of his research, legal judgement and drafting is consistently excellent. Clients rightly jump at the chance to instruct him.
Helen Law - Matrix ChambersA superb advocate who does the groundwork, engages with the client and works collaboratively to great effect.
Eric Metcalfe - Monckton ChambersHe has unrivalled expertise in data protection and EU law which he utilises in civil liberties cases. He is a rigorous in his preparation for cases and his drafting is clear and persuasive.
Hanif Mussa - Blackstone ChambersGrabs all details in the case and creates good strategies on sensitive grey areas. Absolute star.
Patrick Roche - Garden Court ChambersExcellent advocacy and always brings a very rounded, fresh approach.
Tim Baldwin - Garden Court ChambersTechnically brilliant and takes on the most extraordinary cases.
Steve Broach - 39 Essex ChambersA brilliant lawyer and great in written submissions and in court.
Joanne Cecil - Garden Court ChambersA star performer.
Joanne Clement - 11KBWA star in the making.
Stephen Cottle - Garden Court ChambersLeading counsel in the Gypsies and Travellers area of law.
Tom Cross - 11KBWExcellent legal analysis coupled with an impressive capability (especially for a public law junior of this quality) to take the strategic initiative and engage fully with clients.
Graham Denholm - Landmark ChambersHe combines encyclopaedic knowledge of immigration detention powers and policies with sound public law analysis.
Raj Desai - Matrix ChambersFiercely intelligent and his technical legal knowledge is second-to-none.
Emma Dixon - Blackstone ChambersBrilliant, thoughtful and diligent. She brings a unique approach and perspective to her cases.
Laura Dubinsky - Doughty Street ChambersA powerful advocate, her ingenuity and ability to come up with novel points of law is unrivalled.
Heather Emmerson - 11KBWAn accomplished junior who is the all-round package: her written advocacy is incisive and persuasive and, in person, she is engaging and compelling.
Joanna Evans - 25 Bedford RowA highly intelligent and extremely talented lawyer. She is meticulous in her preparation of cases and has a commanding knowledge of each case.
Piers Gardner - Monckton ChambersVery clever, imaginative lawyer with an unrivalled, in-depth knowledge of the workings of various EU and UN institutions.
Blinne Ni Ghralaigh - Matrix ChambersBlinne is a brilliant lawyer. She is an expert in human rights and protest law and has an encyclopedic knowledge of the law. Her written advocacy is very persuasive. She has been involved in many cutting-edge cases involving protest law issues.
Nikolaus Grubeck - Monckton ChambersHas a sharp legal mind, clear strategic thinking and is outcome focused. He is one a few counsel that understand the dynamics of developing technology and rights.
Kirsten Heaven - Garden Court ChambersExcellent with clients. Understands the strengths and weaknesses of a case quickly and has an excellent understanding of the law.
Leonie Hirst - Doughty Street ChambersAn expert in complex immigration detention and immigration public law matters. She is thorough but also quick and concise.
Christopher Knight - 11KBWChris is one of the best public law juniors around and is an absolute star in the making.
Paul Luckhurst - Blackstone ChambersBrilliant attention to detail and produces thorough, well researched and presented drafting.
Shu Shin Luh - Doughty Street ChambersA force of nature - energetic, creative and industrious. She combines great strategic thinking with creative solutions for clients.
Claire McCann - CloistersThe ultimate iron fist in a velvet glove. She is able to unravel complex issues and deliver clear, quick and high impact advice with sensitivity.
Alison Meacher - HardwickeThorough, hard-working, very accessible, knowledgeable, and tenacious.
Una Morris - Garden Court ChambersCombines sharp tactical analysis with a down-to-earth, hands-on approach. Una has a wealth of experience litigating against the police, which makes her a welcome and reassuring presence on any such case.
Julianne Kerr Morrison - Monckton ChambersAn encyclopaedic knowledge of data protection legislation and case law. She is fully up to speed on recent developments in this complex and constantly evolving area of practice.
Naina Patel - Blackstone ChambersNaina has an encyclopaedic knowledge of trafficking and slavery case law (including European Court of Human Rights jurisprudence) and is able to apply her knowledge in the most complex of cases to secure real and practical benefits for our clients.
Jason Pobjoy - Blackstone ChambersHe has an extraordinary legal mind and is an unusually fluent and articulate advocate. He is also a very affable and supportive team player.
Jennifer Robinson - Doughty Street ChambersA brilliant human rights lawyer, who is willing to take on the most difficult cases, clever in her tactics and prepared to stay with cases for years.
Nick Stanage - Doughty Street ChambersA skilled and calm advocate who has worked across jurisdictions.
Iain Steele - Blackstone ChambersExtremely hardworking and bright, with an excellent eye for detail.
Azeem Suterwalla - Monckton ChambersClarity of thought and the ability to draw on considerable expertise in a client-friendly manner. Sound judgement and pragmatic approach.
Rajeev Thacker - Garden Court ChambersHis intellectual rigour combined with his commitment to civil liberties and tackling injustice is unparalleled.
Adam Wagner - Doughty Street ChambersA great legal mind who puts a lot of time into his material and gets very good results.
Felicity Williams - Garden Court ChambersVast knowledge on public law and an impressive advocate.
Can Yeginsu - 4 New SquareProfound knowledge of freedom of expression and the quality of his work is superb.

Rising Stars

Jennifer MacLeod - Brick Court ChambersPassionate, focused and fiercely determined - and won't be steered off course no matter what the opponent tries to throw at her! A real leading light who will go far.
Emma Mockford - Brick Court ChambersAn effective and efficient advocate, and a great asset to the team.

Civil liberties and human rights (including actions against the police) in London Bar

Blackstone Chambers

Blackstone Chambers is singled out for its civil liberties practice and is described as the 'go-to set for human rights issues'. Members are frequently instructed on complex and high-profile matters of national importance covering public law, terror legislation, privacy, and EU law. Recent engagements include Ben Jaffey QC and Paul Luckhurst acting for the claimants in R (Hoareau & Bancoult) v SSFCA pertaining to the right of return of Chagossian people to British Indian Ocean Territory; preeminent silk and 'Treasury Devil' James Eadie QC acted for the defendant. Elsewhere, Timothy Otty QC acted in Orozco and Others v Attorney General of Belize, challenging the criminalization of homosexuality in Belize. Other of note include 'brilliant' Hanif Mussa who has strength across human rights and international law, and Jason Pobjoy. David Pievsky took silk in 2020. Recently appointed president of Magdalen College, Oxford, Dinah Rose QC remains the distinguished silk in the set along with crossbench peer Lord David Pannick QC. In recent news, Charlotte Kilroy QC joined the set from Doughty Street Chambers.

Matrix Chambers

'On top of its game', Matrix Chambers is an 'influential and high-calibre' civil liberties set with a strong reputation acting in public law, unlawful detention, human trafficking, and international human rights matters. Standout silk Phillippa Kaufmann QC acted in a successful challenge against the Metropolitan Police's use of section 14 Public Order Act against Extinction Rebellion protesters in London, as well as acting for End Violence Against Women in a judicial review of the DPP's reduced prosecution rate for rape. Richard Hermer QC is the key name for leading claimant teams in international human rights cases and, alongside Edward Craven, is representing Maha Elgizouli in her challenge against the Home Secretary's decision to aid the United States in the trial of her sons 'The ISIS Beatles' which may result in the death penalty. Samantha Knights QC is also of note as is dual-qualified Raj Desai who clients describe as being 'exceptionally thorough.'

Doughty Street Chambers

Doughty Street Chambers is considered the 'preeminent set when it comes to the assertion and advancement of human rights' and has an 'excellent' reputation in civil liberties and human rights; particularly in the area of extradition, international law and actions against the state, and is, according to some, 'an impressive chambers with highly intelligent, and politically savvy barristers'. Recent instructions include Edward Fitzgerald QC and Jennifer Robinson representing Julian Assange in his fight against extradition to the United States, whilst Heather Williams QC continues to be engaged in the Undercover Policing Inquiry. 'Fantastic junior' Jude Bunting has an extensive public and police law interface to civil liberties work and acted in a Supreme Court test case pertaining to bail conditions and whether it requires a person to stay indoors throughout the night. Other members of note include Caoilfhionn Gallagher QC who is one of three silks acting in The Hillsborough Victims Litigation. In recent news that has further strengthened the set, Leonie Hirst has joined chambers, along with Maya Sikand and Shu Shin Luh from Garden Court Chambers.

Garden Court Chambers

Garden Court Chambers is a 'fantastic set with barristers committed to the rights of individuals and civil liberties', and is singled out as a 'go-to' for its specialism in complex inquests and actions against the police. Noted for his death in custody work, Leslie Thomas QC is a key member of the set and is currently lead counsel on the Inquest into the death of Mohammed Yassar Yaqub, who was shot by police officers on the M62 motorway. Other members of note include 'exceptional' Una Morris and 'standout practitioner' Rajeev Thacker. Stephen Simblet took silk in 2020, strengthening chambers at the senior end.


11KBW is an 'excellent set with very proactive and high-powered silks' who are frequently engaged in civil liberties matters pertaining to immigration, social care, and detention. Leading silk Jason Coppel QC represented the Equality and Human Rights Commission in a Supreme Court appeal concerning the immigration rights of human trafficking victims, as well as acting for NGO Maternity Action in a judicial review challenging the NHS charging regime for disproportionately impacting migrant women. Tom Cross is engaged in a judicial review for the parents of Charlie Hughes who are challenging the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidelines over the prescription of cannabis-based medicine to children. 'King of data rightsChristopher Knight is also of note and has expertise across media and privacy law-related human rights claims. Aileen McColgan QC has strengthened the set with her elevation to silk in early 2020.

39 Essex Chambers

39 Essex Chambers has an 'unparalleled range of exceptional juniors and leading counsel' and leverages its vast public law expertise to act on complex human rights issues including immigration, right to life, and healthcare-related human rights. Recent instructions include Lisa Giovannetti QC appearing before the Supreme Court in R (AM Zimbabwe) v SSHD concerning the deportation of foreign nationals on the basis of lack of access to health care in their home countries against the ECHR articles. James Strachan QC is the key practitioner in right to die cases on behalf of the government. Other members of note include Vikram Sachdeva QC highlighted for his 'intellectual agility and flair' and 'fearless advocateNigel Pleming QC. In recent news, Steve Broach has strengthened the set after joining from Monckton Chambers.

Brick Court Chambers

Brick Court Chambers is 'an excellent set with very clever people' with key specialisms across EU law, public law, and handling complex civil liberties claims. Continuing on from his work including Purdy and NicklinsonPaul Bowen QC is acting in R (Omid T) v Ministry of Justice, a right to assisted death case for an individual with a degenerative neurological conditionHe is also representing Anthony Cohen v State of Trinidad and Tobago in an appeal against the murder conviction and a constitutional challenge to the death penalty. Jemima Stratford QC is representing three human rights NGOs in a judicial review on the legality of the UK's arms export to Saudi Arabia which is pending before the Supreme Court. The 'fantasticMaya Lester QC is also of note as is the 'superbLord Anderson of Ipswich KBE QC who remains a distinguished member of chambers. A 'star of her generation', Jennifer MacLeod is 'phenomenally quick, a great team player and a fantastic strategist. She is the full package.' She joins the 'diligent, detail-oriented, and pragmatic' Emma Mockford in the rising stars list.

Landmark Chambers

Landmark Chambers has 'real strength in depth in civil liberties and human rights, and possess a fantastic selection of junior counsel'. Members have a wide practice spinning across social care, public law, and immigration detention. Richard Drabble QC acted in KV (Sri Lanka) v SSHD for the claimant which considered the assessment of medical evidence in asylum claims pertaining to alleged torture. Community care specialist Fiona Scolding QC continues to lead the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse and is leading three strands of its investigation including boarding schools and the Anglican Church. In recent news, David Blundell QC took silk in early 2020.

Monckton Chambers

Monckton Chambers is described as a 'progressive and dynamic set, with star quality throughout', with particular emphasis on the intersection of civil liberties and data protection rights, with members frequently engaged in complex data rights claims and public law challenges. In one instance, Ian Wise QC acted in Harry Miller v College of Policing and Humberside Police surrounding the Police's action of a video recording a 'non-crime hate accident' which the High Court concluded disproportionately interfered with the claimant's right of freedom of expression. Elsewhere, Eric Metcalfe acted for the Secretary of State and successfully defended HMP Whitemoor Prison’s decision's use of video link before the Court of Appeal. Also of note, the 'excellent' Nikolaus Grubeck is acting for a consortium of human rights NGOs in a pending Supreme Court challenge to the decision by the Secretary of State for International Trade to continue to export arms and military equipment to Saudi Arabia.