Firm Profile > RELEVANS Law Firm > Bratislava , Slovakia
RELEVANS Law Firm Offices
DVORÁKOVO NÁBREŽIE 8/A
811 02 BRATISLAVA
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RELEVANS Law Firm > The Legal 500 Rankings
Dispute resolution Tier 2
The ‘business-oriented and flexible’ team of ‘litigation specialists’ at RELEVANS Law Firm represents domestic clients in high-profile disputes. Managing partner Alexander Kadela is ‘effective, pragmatic and experienced’ and Tomáš Bardelčík, who heads the litigation department, is ‘highly skilled’. The group is acting for Slovak investors, ADS Property and Carlton Property in several high-profile disputes regarding the ownership of the Hotel Carlton in Bratislava.
Real estate and construction Tier 2
RELEVANS Law Firm is ‘devoted to the detail of each transaction’ and is instructed by J&T Real Estate on a slew of real estate mandates. Team head Jana Borská, senior associate Ladislav Haladej and associate Pavol Solár, who is 'a dynamic and reliable lawyer’, are noted, as are attorneys Eduard Pajdlhauser and Barbora Kašparová.
The ‘well-established’ team at RELEVANS Law Firm has 'a commercial approach’ and is active across transaction financing, regulatory work and securities mandates. Team head Marián Masarik speclialises in project finance and senior associates Andrea Kováčiková and Zuzana Malacká are also key figures.
The ‘well-established’ team at RELEVANS Law Firm has 'a commercial approach’. Team head Marián Masarik and Jana Borská are recommended, as are senior associates Andrea Kováčiková, Zuzana Malacká and Martina Krupcova. The group advised Sandberg Capital on the establishment of a joint venture between Swan and Benestra to create a new telecoms operator.
RELEVANS Law Firm > Firm Profile
The Law Firm
RELEVANS Law Firm (“RELEVANS”) is one of the largest and leading law firms in Slovakia.
It was established in 2010, and rapidly became one of the major law firms in Slovakia, with prominent clients, high quality of legal services, and a stable team of professionals.
Associate attorneys at law and associates work as a team in specialized divisions and departments, which leads to appropriate organization, maximal effectiveness of the work performed, and, above all, to acquisition of deep knowledge and skills in various practice areas of the firm. The clients of RELEVANS often appreciate this as an appropriate means of assisting them to successfully meet their needs, goals, and visions.
- excellent knowledge of Slovak legal system and business environment,
- strategic thinking and innovative solutions,
- high workload,
- dynamic and pro-client business approach,
- deep engagement and effective communication with both, client and counterparty,
- compliance with the highest standards of professionalism and ethical standards.
RELEVANS represents reputable clients – private clients, as well as corporations, for instance the major real estate developer in the Slovak market, three Slovak banks, TV broadcasters, energy companies, railway companies, a cargo company, finance groups, an insurance company, IT companies, capital and real estate funds, and more.
Areas of practice
RELEVANS provides its clients with high-quality legal services, especially in the following areas of practice:
The litigation agenda is one of the key practice areas of RELEVANS, with a strong team of experienced procedural lawyers. We represent over 270 mandates those are demanding and complex, in a total value of disputes EUR 2 billion (with more than 40 cases having a value over EUR 1 million each).
RELEVANS established a unique department within our law firm, the Litigation Division that is formed as a specialized team of procedural lawyers, who focus solely on the litigation and arbitration agenda and deal with the most significant and reputable cases. Our firm has won prestigious domestic law firms´ awards for Litigation (in 2019, for the fourth time in a row) that shows our strength in the advisory for litigation and arbitration and our position in the legal services´ market.
We represent clients in the most complex and difficult cases, such as claims for abstract damages, invalidity of joint legal actions, corporate litigation, disputes regarding breach of competition law, cases on protection of personal rights, numerous constitutional complaint cases, and proceedings vis-à-vis the European Court of Human Rights.
Selected reference cases:
- Representation of defendants in a dispute concerning invalidity of legal acts in a total value of more than EUR 584 million
- Representation of clients in a tangle of proceedings regarding the high-profile Carlton case (altogether more than 30 court, administrative or criminal proceedings – the most significant ones in the total value of app. EUR 200 million)
- Representation of one of the most significant Slovak banks in a dispute over determination of authenticity of a receivable amounting to more than EUR 166 million
- Representation of the companies Železničná spoločnosť Cargo Slovakia and Železničná spoločnosť Slovensko have being sued for payment of damages claims in the amount of more than EUR 90 million
- Representation of the plaintiff Železničná spoločnosť Cargo Slovakia in proceedings over reviewing the legality of the procedure and decision of the Antimonopoly Office of the Slovak Republic, which imposed a fine of more than EUR 10 million
- Representation of the defendant Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska (Radio and Television Slovakia) in several court proceedings over damages, protection of personality rights, protection of reputation and compensation of non-material damage
- Representation of the plaintiff MCH – Medical Care Holding (a shareholder of the already non-existent private health insurance company Európska zdravotná poisťovňa) in a dispute against the Slovak Republic for unpaid compensation for unconstitutional expropriation in the amount of the requested compensation with appurtenances of more than EUR 50 million
- Representation of a bank in proceedings before the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic regarding the lodging of creditors’ (especially of banks’) claims to restructuring
- Representation of a defendant in proceedings over determination of invalidity of legal acts and over determination of ownership of real estate property in the amount of more than 50 million EUR
- Representation of a developer in several lawsuits with the City of Bratislava concerning the demolition of the Park kultúry a oddychu (Park of Culture and Rest) buildings, damages of more than 28 million EUR and return of unjust enrichment, as well as in the out-of-court settlement with the City
- Representation of a plaintiff in court proceedings over damages in total of more than EUR 50 million who acquired receivables by means of assignment from the Slovnaft shareholders. The shareholders claimed to have suffered damage by the actions of Mol Hungarian Oil and Gas Public Limited Company in announcement of the mandatory takeover bid of Slovnaft
- Representation of the plaintiff ČEZ Slovakia in a dispute over damages in a total amount of more than EUR 20 million caused by breach of the obligation to take off electric energy
- Representation of a bank in proceedings before the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic in respect of lodging creditors’ (especially of banks’) claims to restructuring
- Representation of an applicant in proceedings before the European Court of Human Rights for violation of the right to a fair trial
- Representation of a creditor in a dispute over determination of authenticity of a receivable in bankruptcy in the amount of more than EUR 9 million
Real Estate and Development Agenda
RELEVANS deals with real estate law in all its contexts and in this area has extensive know-how and experience with the most various types of projects and transactions.
Within other clients, we provide complex legal services to one of the two largest developers in Slovakia, J&T REAL ESTATE who operates its business in the CEE region as well.
Our legal services cover every stage of each real estate development phase, issues with authorization and approval phases of each projects, development, day-to-day operation and lease of the premises, financing, corporate structuring of the involved companies, and final stages such as asset / share deals. RELEVANS takes part in the most significant projects in the Slovak Republic and the most reputable transactions.
Our firm won prestigious domestic law firms´ awards for our Real Estate and Development Agenda (in 2018 for the third time in a row).
Selected reference projects:
Legal advice on financing, construction, and comprehensive contractual agenda of the Zuckermandel multifunctional centre
- 185 Park Street, London
Legal advice for the buyer in cooperation with the British law firm Setfords SOLICITORS on the acquisition of a real estate property in London
Legal advice on subdivision of land, permitting processes, and construction of the citywide CMC Petržalka centre on the Petržalka side of the Danube and on the related infrastructure, including drafting of all contractual documentation and representation vis-à-vis third parties
Legal services in connection with the construction, financing as well as sale of individual flats and non-residential premises of the Fuxova residential building
- Panorama I, II, III and IV
Legal advice in connection with the project development, financing, drafting of comprehensive template documentation, legal advice on the operation and administration of the projects
Legal advice for the buyer on acquisition of a multifunctional centre followed by provision of comprehensive legal services
- Eurovea II
Legal advice in connection with the preparation and construction of the project
Legal advice on acquisition of land, financing, as well as on the construction of the Eperia polyfunctional centre in Prešov and its overall contracting, including the continuation of the 2nd phase of the project
- River Park I and II
Legal advice regarding the lease, administration and operation of the River Park I multifunctional project and the preparation of the River Park II project
Legal services in connection with the preparation of the implementation and the division of the project into two separate parts and with the future sale and lease of flats and non-residential premises in the project
- Ovocné sady Trnávka
Legal services in connection with the preparation and construction of a project consisting of several residential buildings, related infrastructure, and landscaping
- Westend Business Park in Bratislava
Legal services and advice on an administrative business zone
- Karloveské rameno
Provision of legal services relating to the construction, financing, sale and lease of non-residential premises
- Zelené terasy Devín
Legal services related to the preparation, financing, advertising, and construction of the Phase IV of the project and to the sale of houses, land, and related buildings
- Nová Vieska, Rubáň, France
Legal advice in connection with a project for residential property and wine production
M&A / Corporate Law / Competition Agenda
RELEVANS provides legal advice on implementation of investment projects of domestic and foreign investors in the most diverse market segments whether in form of share deals, asset deals, transfers of undertakings or any parts thereof, implementation of mergers, joint ventures or other forms of M&A setups. Among its clients beseem strategic investors, banks, financial groups, domestic and foreign trading companies, as well as private individuals.
Regarding corporate law, we take care of all areas of corporate life of the companies and its corporate governance (over 250 active companies).
Regarding competition law, we cover not only legal disputes in this field, but also the competition law from the business and corporate perspective.
The issues covered by this practice area arise not only in connection with the intended or implemented transactions, representation of clients before the Antimonopoly Office of the Slovak Republic and in related court proceedings, but also when providing legal support to clients in relation to the correct set-up of internal relations and their business activities.
- Legal advice to the seller when selling the majority shareholding in the company Energetický a průmyslový holding
- Legal advice to a buyer in cooperation with the British law firm Setfords SOLICITORS on acquisition of real properties in London in the amount of app. EUR 450 million
- Legal advice on the creation of a joint venture of the shareholders of the telecommunication operators Benestra and SWAN, thereby creating the 4th largest operator in Slovakia
- Legal advice to the buyer in connection with the acquisition of a business entity in the field of mining
- Legal advice on the acquisition of shares in a foreign alternative investment fund with variable capital with its registered office in the Republic of Malta
- Legal advice to investors entering a company dealing with the development of Aeronautical Information Management (AIM) software
- Legal advice to the seller Železničná spoločnosť Cargo Slovakia in connection with the preparation of contractual documentation on the sale of a part of the rolling stock fleet – railway wagons to the successful tenderer
- Legal advice on statutory prohibition of returning contributions in the Slovak regulatory environment
- Legal advice on the merger of companies Akzent BigBoard and Media Representative
- Legal advice to a company in connection with its merger with a company operating a passenger port in Bratislava and a passenger ship transport on the Danube
- Legal advice to buyers on acquisitions of a share in a company which operates as a management company managing alternative investment funds under a license of the NBS
Banking and Financing Agenda
Regarding our services in B&F agenda, we represent banks, financial institutions as well as private persons. We provide advisory to debtors in projects´ financing, to issuers of bonds with the respective procedure of bonds´ issuance, to owners (subscribers) of the issued bonds with their rights and obligations fulfilment. We also provide complex legal advice to a branch of a foreign bank from the perspective of its day-to-day agenda, i.e. advisory for performance of the bank´s business activities.
In addition to the renowned transaction lawyers, also a highly specialized group of lawyers is engaged in banking and finance, who have acquired their experience during their previous jobs in banks and financial groups, as well as studying banking and financial law. They use their knowledge and experience to advice banks, financial institutions, companies regulated on financial markets as well as other entities when financing various projects and transactions.
We provided legal advisory, for instance, as follows:
- Legal advice to the sole subscriber in connection with the issuance of bonds and the financing of the purchase price of bonds worth more than EUR 230 million
- Legal advice to the borrower in connection with club financing of the company´s acquisition and existing loans´ refinancing worth more than EUR 125 million
- Legal advice to the bonds´ owner worth EUR 135 million
- Legal advice to the prospective buyer and security provider regarding the purchase of EUROVEA bonds
- Legal advice to a single EUR 120.5 million bond holder
- Legal advice to a EUR 135 million bond holder
- Legal advice to the debtor regarding the receipt of a revolving loan granted by the future acquirer of 100% equity interest in the debtor company
- Legal advice to the bank as a securities broker regarding the modification of the Bank’s business conditions and other related documents following the new regulation of the regulation of MiFID II investment services and activities
- Legal advice to the Bank regarding the modification of the Bank’s business conditions and other related documents following a new – revised Payment Services Directive in the Internal Market Payment Services Directive (PSD 2)
- Legal services to the debtor in connection with the syndicated refinancing of a significant shopping-mall project by bank consortium, worth EUR 250 million
|Litigation and arbitration||Alexander Kadelafirstname.lastname@example.org||+421 2 323 54 610|
|Real estate / development / construction industry||Jana Borskáemail@example.com||+421 905 793 802|
|Mergers and acquisitions||Marián Masarikfirstname.lastname@example.org||+421 2 323 54 620|
|Banking / securities / finance||Jana Borskáemail@example.com||+421 905 793 802|
|Office management||Officefirstname.lastname@example.org||+421 2 323 54 602|
|PR, HR, Marketing, Corporate Culture||Lucia Baranováemail@example.com||+421 2 323 54 608|
Staff FiguresLucia Baranová : firstname.lastname@example.org
LanguagesGerman English Czech
MembershipsSlovak Bar Association
CLIENT: Martin Bahurinský, General Director at Legal Section
COMPANY/FIRM: eleznicná spolocnost Slovensko
TESTIMONIAL: Undoubtedly, RELEVANS is one of the great counsels in litigation matters.
I especially appreciate the professional approach of its lawyers to the conduct of proceedings, their superior commitment and soundness. By the quality of their legal services, they far exceed the quality of what, in Slovak law firms, is considered to be normal and customary. I know that I can rely on their excellent performance
CLIENT: Igor Nagy, Ex – CEO
COMPANY/FIRM: CEZ Slovensko
TESTIMONIAL: Alexander Kadela is an outstanding litigator with extraordinary strategic thinking, who is capable of anticipating every move of the opposing party and is always one step ahead. He has an eye for detail and an unbelievably great working attitude
CLIENT: Michal Rybovic, Executive
TESTIMONIAL: We appreciate the RELEVANS Law Firm M&A team mainly because of their high professionalism, reliability, flexibility and ability to comprehensively address even the most demanding transactions and cases
CLIENT: Radoslav Mokrý, Member of the Board
TESTIMONIAL: When the need to address transaction advising occurs, with confidence I always turn to Marián Masarik. I especially appreciate his negotiation skills, his high quality, highly efficient work and, last but not least, his client and human approach. Thanks to his wide transactional experience and understanding of our business, he always helps find the most appropriate setting and structure of the transaction. During our several years of collaboration, Marian has never failed to comply with any agreed date
CLIENT: Lea Bezáková, Director of Legal Services
COMPANY/FIRM: Potová banka
TESTIMONIAL: RELEVANS Law Firm provides its clients with legal services at a high professional level and with a massive degree of humanity and loyalty. The combination of these attributes makes RELEVANS Law Firm a unique and reliable partner.
CLIENT: Peter Remenár, CFO
COMPANY/FIRM: J&T REAL ESTATE
TESTIMONIAL: Precise in details, efficient with work. It is clearly a team to work with.
CLIENT: Alena Meszároová, Director of Legal & Claims Recovery
COMPANY/FIRM: Slovenská zárucná a rozvojová banka
TESTIMONIAL: RELEVANS Law Firm is professionally ready to respond to the needs of legal support in a timely manner and to provide legal advice to the bank in the whole range of banking and related activities, including representation in dispute proceedings. We use the services of this law firm when we need to resolve issues that are of key importance for us.
CLIENT: Pavel Pelikán, CEO
COMPANY/FIRM: J&T REAL ESTATE
TESTIMONIAL: RELEVANS is clearly No. 1 in provision of legal advising for real estate, construction and development. J & T REAL ESTATE have used the legal services of RELEVANS many times, and every time we experienced maximum quality and satisfaction with their legal services, their approach to their work, efficiency, flexibility and the speed of the delivered services.
Doing Business In
How can RELEVANS Law Firm help?
RELEVANS Law Firm is one of the largest and award-winning law firms in Slovakia. Thanks to our outstanding and experienced legal professionals, we have become one of leading law firms in litigation, real estate law, as well as in M&A, corporate and banking law. We provide our services to domestic and foreign clients as well.
Areas of practice
RELEVANS Law Firm provides to its clients with comprehensive and high-quality legal services in following areas of practice:
Mergers & Acquisitions
Real estate law
Banking and financing
Intellectual property law and IT law
Media law/Telecommunication law
Since the formation of RELEVANS Law Firm, litigation agenda has been and continues to be the key and most important area of our activity. RELEVANS Law Firm has a specialised team of procedural lawyers representing domestic and foreign clients before general courts, the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic, the European Court of Human Rights, as well as in arbitration proceedings.
RELEVANS Law Firm represents its clients in all areas of their activities, while being the most experienced primarily in the field of claims for damages, legal issues related to personality rights, protection of competition, constitutional law, intellectual property rights, telecommunication law, banking and financial law and administrative law. RELEVANS Law Firm provides comprehensive legal cover for the most challenging cases on the Slovak market.
Our legal services include:
- Preparation of in-depth analyses relating to the evidence, factual and legal background of every particular case
- Assessment of risks to the client’s legal status
- Preparation of procedural strategy
- Consultation in the preparatory stages of dispute settlements, as well as during ongoing proceedings
- Negotiation and representation of the client in an out-of-court dispute settlement
- Preparation of all types of filings, including pre-litigation appeals, actions, proposals, opinions and ordinary as well as extraordinary remedies
- Representation in proceedings
- Assistance in enforcement of the decision
2. Mergers & Acquisitions
Focus on detail, an efficient business approach, and much more defines RELEVANS Law Firm’s team of transaction and corporate/commercial lawyers, who provide legal services in M&A.
Over the years, we have been involved in a large number of significant acquisitions, whether in the form of a share-deal, asset-deal, transfers of enterprises or their parts, mergers (by fusion, merger or cross-border mergers), joint ventures and other M&A forms.
We provide legal services in the implementation of domestic and foreign investors’ investment plans in the most diverse segments of the market. Our clients include strategic investors, banks, financial groups, domestic and foreign companies, as well as private individuals.
M&A legal services include, in particular:
- Legal due diligence
- Advising on structuring the transactions
- Preparation of transaction documentation
- Representing clients in negotiations, conducting negotiations
- Legal support and advice in financing of transactions
- Active cooperation with tax, financial and other professional advisers
- Advising on competition law issues (concentration)
- Providing analyses of mergers, acquisitions, and transaction´s related issues
- Advising on the implementation of transactions and the post-transaction arrangement of a company
- Representation in proceedings before administrative authorities and public institutions
3. Corporate law
RELEVANS Law Firm provides legal advice in all areas of the company´s lifecycle, starting from selecting the suitable legal form, through selecting the scope of business and company´s formation, up to merger, division, transformation or dissolution. We provide legal services not only in the field of a respective form of company’s corporate relations and operation within the Slovak Republic, but also in the formation and operation of holding arrangements of different companies and groups.
Our legal services include, in particular:
- Establishing of companies and making changes in the registered data
- Advising on and preparation of constitutive documents, shareholder agreements, silent partnership agreements and other similar contracts
- Arranging procedures and conducting general meetings and meetings of other company bodies
- Advising on and preparation of corporate changes such as increase and decrease of a companies’ registered capital
- Advising on and implementation of mergers, amalgamations and divisions of companies, as well as changes in legal form
4. Real estate law
RELEVANS Law Firm has a leading position on the Slovak market for legal services in real estate, development and construction. Comprehensive professional advice for our clients is provided by an extensive team of lawyers with long-term experience in various types of transactions in development, construction and retail projects.
The renowned quality of our services is guaranteed by the involvement of our lawyers in transaction structuring, corporate arrangement of project companies, project financing and security, licensing and approval phases, the sale, lease and management of individual properties, or contractual relationships with suppliersof.
Our services include, in particular:
- Legal due diligence of properties and projects
- Legal advice for zoning, building and approval procedures
- Legal support and advice in the development, planning and construction of properties
- Advice on the purchase/sale and lease of real estate, mostly residential, non-residential, wholesale and retail premises, office and industrial premises
- Legal support and advice in the lease of real estate
- Legal support and advice in the financing of projects and acquisitions
- Advice and preparation of contractual documents in accordance with FIDIC international standards
- Preparation of all related contractual documents according to the client’s needs and project (acquisition contracts, lease and sub-lease relationships, pledge contracts and contracts for rights in rem, drafts of documentation necessary for the execution of decisions on registration and many other)
- Representation in proceedings before administrative authorities, courts and public institutions
Business environment in Slovakia in facts & figures
Area: 49,035 km2
Population: 5,4 mil
Capital City: Bratislava
Memberships: European Union, Eurozone, Schengen Area, OECD, WTO, NATO
Time zone: GMT +1 hour
Type of government: Parliamentary system
Official language: Slovak
Slovakia country credit ratings: A+ by Standard & Poor’s, A+ by Fitch, A2 by Moody’s and 0 by OECD Country Risk
Real GDP Growth 2018: 3,5 %
Average inflation in 2018: 2,5 %
Ease of Doing Business: 33. Place (source: Doing Business Report 2017)
Why invest in Slovakia?
Slovakia is a Central European country with strategic location between Eastern and Western Europe. Slovakia has been known not only for its leisure activities, but due to its growing economy, it has also become an ideal place for doing business.
Why invest in Slovakia?
- Safe investment environment
- Fast-growing economy
- Political and economic stability
- Stable legal environment
- EU member
- Big export potential
- Schengen zone member
- Great telecommunication infrastructure
- Quality road, water and rail infrastructure
- Quality and productive labour with great language skills
- Wide selection of industrial land & offices
- Excellent geographical position
Key business sectors
- TECH industry
- Mechanical engineering
- Electronics industry
- Share Service Centre
- Metallurgy & Metal processing
- Chemistry & Pharmacy
Companies have option to apply for the Investment Aid, under the Slovak Act on Investment Aid. Following projects may be granted the investment aid:
- Industrial production
- Technological centres
- Share service centres
- Tourism centres
Investors can apply for:
- Investment grants
- Corporate tax relief or tax holidays
- New job grants
- The option to acquire a property from the public authorities at a price lower than market value.
The attractiveness of investing in Slovakia is proved by constantly raising number of foreign investors and also by the volume of foreign direct investment in the country.
Taxes in Slovakia
Legal entities that are seated in Slovakia or legal entities whose place of effective management is seated in Slovakia are generally regarded as tax residents and are liable to pay Slovak corporate income tax.
Non-resident legal entities are liable to pay Slovak corporate income tax only on income specifically generated from the Slovak sources.
Corporate income tax: 21 %
Value added tax: 20 %
Inheritance Tax: 0 %
Gift Tax Real Estate Transfer Tax: 0 %
Repatriation of Profits: 100 %
Personal income taxes
Personal income tax: progressive rate from 19 % to 25 %
Dividends tax rate: 7 %
Accounting and auditing
Slovak accounting and auditing rules have been harmonized with international and EU standards. The companies may use the preparation of the financial statements and consolidated financial statements the Slovak accounting rules, unless the law prescribes that IFRS rules must be used.
In Slovakia, investors can find skilled workforce with great combination of productivity, qualification, multilingual competence, and last but not least, labour costs. Slovaks are known for high flexibility and adaptability to different cultural management styles.
The most common foreign language is English and followed by German, French and Russian.
As of 2018, the average gross monthly salary in Slovakia is EUR 1004. Minimum gross monthly salary in Slovakia is EUR 520. The maximum weekly working time is 40 hours. Employees performing work on a two-shift operation may work up to 38.75 hours per week and employees working a three-shift system may work up to 37.5 hours per week. Regarding overtime, in general the maximum overtime may not exceed 48 hours per week. But special condition may apply for certain types of work. The current unemployment rate is around 6,6%.
The fundamental laws in business law is the Commercial Code. Doing business is defined as a systematic activity conducted independently by an entrepreneur (either an individual or legal entity), in their own name and under their own responsibility for the purpose of making a profit.
In Slovakia, there are in general the same conditions for establishing business for foreigners, as for Slovak citizens. Therefore, foreigners can establish a Slovak legal entity and can become a partner or a member or a shareholder of any legal entity. All legal forms of business must be registered with the Commercial Register and can start to operate on Slovak market only after the registration process is over and complete. Moreover, every for-profit business activity has to have appropriate trade licence (required for a particular business activity) issued by the Department of Trade or by the special state authorities, if needed).
Legal business entities in Slovakia are:
- Trade Business
- General Partnership
- Limited Partnership
- Simple Joint-Stock Company
- Limited Liability Company
- Joint-Stock Company
Legal system regarding civil litigation & dispute resolution 2019
The legal system of Slovakia is a civil law system, influenced by Roman law tradition.
Civil procedure law is governed in particular by the following Acts:
– Act No. 160/2015 Coll., Civil Dispute Procedure (“CDP”)
– Act No. 161/2015 Coll., Civil Non-dispute Procedure (“CNDP”)
– Act No. 233/1995 Coll. on court bailiffs and execution (Execution Procedure).
Civil procedure is divided into two basic categories:
- dispute proceedings regulated by CDP; and
- non-dispute proceedings regulated by CNDP (e.g. probate proceedings, child custody proceedings or proceedings on the matters of the register of companies).
General courts in Slovakia are: district courts that are the courts of first instance, county courts that are the courts of appeals against decisions of the courts of first instance, and the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic that is an appellate review court. Appellate review (unlike appeal) is an extraordinary remedial measure admissible only against decisions in force of the courts of appeals, aiming at rectification of the most serious errors.
The Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic stands outside the system of general courts and decides on constitutional matters.