Firm Profile > Filip & Company > Bucharest, Romania

Filip & Company

Banking and finance Tier 1

Filip & Company has recently been very active on the borrower side, advising on major acquisition financings and refinancings. The firm is also a top choice for banks seeking corporate and regulatory support on their own M&A. Key names include the highly rated Alina Stancu Birsan and Alexandru Birsan. Up-and-coming counsel Alexandra Manciulea was also promoted to partner. Associate Rebecca Marina is also noted. Carmen Peli left to establish Peli & Company.


‘The response time of the lawyers is always superb. They are able to handle complex technical topics and make them easily understandable for the client.’

‘The team is very responsive and commercial in its approach, with an understanding of international best practice (including in relation to Loan Market Association documentation) and a high level of attention to detail.’

‘Quick and responsive, with huge experience in all the aspects of a banking transaction.’

‘Alina Stancu Birsan is a stand-out practitioner but she is seamlessly supported by an able team including partner Alexandra Manciulea and dependable associate Rebecca Marina. The team has a strong focus on providing excellent value and building a long term relationship.’

Key clients

Banca Transilvania

Raiffeisen Bank S.A.

Banca Comerciala Romana S.A.


ING Bank

Tiriac Group


Alpha Bank Romania S.A.

Novo Banco

Ocazia Management Ltd.

Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB

Advance Global Capital Limited

National Bank of Greece

Capital markets Tier 1

Filip & Company fields one of the top capital markets teams in the country, trusted by some of the largest issuers and underwriters operating in the market. The group's work for major issuers such as Digi Communications and the Romanian Ministry of Finance is evidence of its reputation on the debt capital markets side. Alexandru Bîrsan has built a fine reputation. Associate Olga Niţă is also noted.


‘They have an extensive and excellent knowledge and experience of their fields; in particular for understanding the requirements for debt issuance. They were able to quickly and correctly resolve any problems or questions, they were able to work until late and give us full and comprehensive support whenever we required it.’

Key clients

Digi Communications  and RCS&RDS

Romanian Ministry of Finance

International Investment Bank

Bucharest Stock Exchange

BRD Groupe Societe Generale


J.P. Morgan


af Jochnick family

Banca Transilvania

OMV Petrom

Elliott Management

Commercial, corporate and M&A Tier 1

The market-leading corporate team at legacy firm PeliFilip stayed largely intact following the firm's split, the bulk remaining with Filip & Company. The team is led by the extremely well-regarded Alexandru Bîrsan, and includes managing partner Cristina Filip and Ioan Dumitrascu. The team is entrusted with significant roles on many of the country's largest M&A and private equity deals. It has strong relationships with major domestic and international clients across a range of sectors, including heavily regulated areas such as telecoms and energy.


‘Alex Birsan and his team have a very good understanding of the needs and interests of private equity clients. They were good a navigating difficult negotiations with a counterparty that did not have an experienced transactional lawyer, but rather a litigator with lots of opinions about how things should be done.’

‘They have problem solving abilities which come from their exposure to multiple M&A transactions. They put the client interest before their own ego and know when to take the steer and when to take one step behind.’

‘Alex Birsan is an experienced M&A lawyer who feels the status of a transaction, and relates well with the different people around the table.’

Key clients

Banca Transilvania


Tiriac Group

Bucharest Stock Exchange


Digi Communications


Kameran Financial Limited (Vladimir Cohn)

Arcelor Mittal

Holcim (Romania)

Continental Automotive

Steag Group

Inform Lykos

National Bank of Greece

Deutsche Beteiligungs

Dispute resolution Tier 1

Filip & Company is a popular choice for complex domestic and cross-border disputes. The firm's experience covers international arbitration, as well as major banking, shareholder, construction, media and sports disputes. The team is led by Catalin Alexandru, who is highly experienced in civil and administrative litigation. Senior associate Liliana Dranca is also recommended.


‘The firm has a high business understanding of the case as well as local and international (UK) legal expertise, and a fast reply and ownership of the process and coordination of third party lawyers in the UK.’

‘The team is very responsive and gives very practice legal advice and meets the required deadlines. The team offers attractive financial conditions.’

‘Catalin Alexandru made good assessment and provided practical advice, which helped to resolve the issue. ‘

Key clients


Piraeus Bank Romania


Coca-Cola HBC

Arcelor Mittal

British American Tobacco

Banca Transilvania



Nestlé Romania

Employment Tier 1

Filip & Company is a popular choice for some of the country's largest employers, which span the retail, healthcare, consumer goods, manufacturing and utilities industries. On the advisory side, the team provides strong support on corporate transactions, restructurings, collective negotiations, employee incentive schemes, GDPR and more general day-to-day matters. Practice head Ioan Dumitrascu has a strong track record for defending contentious employment claims. Senior associate Cristina Tudoran is also noted.


‘Filip & Company has an extremely approachable, knowledgeable and professional team and they have a skill in applying lateral thinking to finding solutions.’

‘Ioan Dumitrascu has superb skills in guiding businesses through stormy waters and offering solutions which lead to win-win situations’.

‘Cristina Tudoran as a senior associate is very knowledgeable and client-oriented, a safe pair of hands delivering advice with an apparent ease behind which lies a profound understanding of the field.’

Key clients


Blue Air



Maillis Romania

Real Hyper Magazine

The Versapak Group

Total Soft

Energy and natural resources Tier 1

Filip & Company's highly regarded team is praised for its 'broad exposure across both the public and private sectors'. The practice is regularly instructed by domestic and international energy companies and banks on the full range of energy-related regulatory, corporate and infrastructure issues. Alina Stancu Birsan leads the team, which also includes hugely experienced founding partner Cristina Filip.


Alina Stancu Birsan has vast skills across a variety of situations, including nuclear financing and energy M&A‘.

‘The team is very proactive and competent. They inform clients on ongoing topics that might be of interest for their business.’

The team has broad exposure across both the public and private sectors.

Key clients

Amec Foster Wheeler


RWE Supply & Trading

Tiriac Group


Holcim Romania


Energy Gas Provider

Bioenergy Suceava

WIEE Romania (Gazprom subsidiary)

GTX Group

Portland Trust Developments Two

Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica

Holzindustrie Schweighofer

Energy Trade Activ

EU and competition Tier 1

Filip & Company is 'very focused on competition matters and very innovative'. The practice has been kept busy recently advising on investigations and merger clearances, and has strong expertise in heavily regulated sectors such as telecoms. Practice head Cătălin Suliman 'has a deep knowledge of the sports industry and excellent knowledge of national and European competition law as well as the approach of the Romanian competition authority'. Clients also rate Georgeta Gavriloiu and associate Dragos Iordache.


‘Very focused on competition matters and very innovative. They take on the challenges positively and with a flexible approach.’

‘The team is relaxed in the interaction with the client without any impact on their professionalism. It is easy to get a hold of them and there is no need to speak only with the head of the department. Connecting with any of the team members will suffice and you will get all information required.’

‘The firm, especially partner, Cătălin Suliman, is the perfect choice. With an excellent understanding of the business needs.’

Cătălin Suliman has a deep knowledge of the sports industry and excellent knowledge of national and European competition law as well as the approach of the Romanian competition authority.

Key clients

Arctic SA


National Association of Insurance and Reinsurance Companies in Romania

Banca Transilvania

Inform Lykos


Octavian Radu (shareholder of RTC Holding)

Restructuring and insolvency Tier 1

Filip & Company approaches the restructuring and insolvency market from all angles. As well as advising creditors (including major banks and financial institutions) and debtors, the firm has also built up a strong track record representing investors buying up distressed assets. Ioan Dumitrascu and Alina Stancu Birsan are highly experienced on the corporate finance side of major corporate restructurings, while disputes head Catalin Alexandru is a top choice for insolvency litigation. Associate Razvan Ionescu is also noted.


‘The team is dynamic, competent, adaptive, promising, with a very good understanding of all the things that arise.’

Key clients



TMT Tier 1

Filip & Company acts for some of the largest telecoms and media companies in the country. The cross-departmental team's has been particularly busy handling numerous matters for RCS & RDS, including corporate, financing, regulatory, and copyright issues. The practice also has a strong IT component, acting for leading developers in areas such as robotic automation and e-commerce. Alexandru Birsan leads he team, which also includes litigation head Catalin Alexandru and corporate partner Eliza Baias.


‘Good availability and customer centricity throughout entire project.’

Key clients


Digi Communications N.V

Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB

PPP and procurement Tier 3

Filip & Company is notably recommended for its expertise in energy and infrastructure projects, where practice head Alina Stancu Birsan is highly experienced. The firm also has a good track record in waste management, IT and energy concessions, as well as handling the related disputes.


‘They are very passionate about their work and therefore the deliverable is always excellent.’

‘Cristina Filip is a very clever and innovative lawyer. I always have the feeling she cares about my problems. She and her team delivered on time or even earlier.’

Key clients

Raiffeisen Bank

J.P. Morgan Securities Plc.


OMV Petrom

FBR Forestops




Retim Ecologic Service

Inform Lykos.

Real estate and construction Tier 3

Filip & Company's team, which is led by Ioana Roman, is one of two firms to emerge from PeliFilip. The firm acts for a mix of developers, investment funds and corporate occupiers and investors, and has strong experience of major development projects, corporate-structured buyouts and land acquisitions.


‘The team was very much geared towards making our client’s project possible, they were always looking to find a solution for any problems that came up. This made them very different from the other party’s legal advisor team. Filip’s team helped our client to assess risks and take any risks acceptable.’

‘A very professional team. They have handled complicated real estate transaction in an intensive, thorough and energetic manner.’

‘Ioana Roman is an excellent professional with deep knowledge of the subject combined with a proactive and helpful attitude.’

Key clients

Tiriac Holdings


Portland Trust

Argo Real Estate

J.P. Morgan Securities Plc



UBM Development AG


Raiffeisen Property International

Ovidiu Sandor

Mitiska REIM

The firm: Filip & Company is a full-service business law firm, ranked in the first tier of top-quality legal services providers in Romania.

Filip & Company’s team of lawyers exercise commanding professional expertise in their areas of specialisation, blending deep knowledge and the understanding of Romanian law and jurisprudence with the wealth of experience accumulated in mandates covering the majority of innovative, complex and large transactions and projects in the Romanian market over more than 15 years.

Areas of practice: Filip & Company provides a comprehensive range of legal services. Its key practice areas are: mergers and acquisitions, general corporate, real estate, energy, projects, finance (which includes capital markets and banking), EU law and competition, commercial, labour, TMT and dispute resolution.

The M&A and corporate team unites lawyers who have had major roles in the majority of the top M&A transactions of the past ten years. The team’s experience includes: private and public M&A, private equity transactions, privatisations, restructurings, mergers, spin-offs, creating and implementing management structures, financial assistance, corporate governance matters, compliance by public companies with listing rules, disclosure obligations and special approvals, structuring of different classes of shares and specialist advice on other complex matters.

The real estate practice specialises in highly complex projects where multi-sectorial experience, in-depth knowledge of the real estate specificities and the ability to manage multiple legal work-streams simultaneously are essential. The real estate team has the ability and experience to cover all legal services ancillary to real estate business, from land acquisitions, financing of real estate projects, development and project management, construction contracts and lease agreements to the most complex of exit transactions.

The energy team assembles a wealth of experience and a background in both Romanian and international work, which is very difficult to match in Romania, in areas such as: development of new projects, acquisitions of energy companies, privatisations of the major Romanian energy companies and financing schemes for the energy sector.

The competition team has wide-ranging experience in both antitrust and state aid matters, having assisted in some of the landmark competition cases in Romania.

The commercial team regularly advises on complex commercial agreements, concessions and public procurement.

The capital markets team has extensive experience in complex capital markets transactions, both domestic and international, including domestic and international IPOs, high-yield bonds, convertible bonds, structured finance and complex derivatives advice.

The projects team is familiar with complex project financing structures and has been involved in a wide variety of projects from nuclear and renewables to motorways and mining.

The labour practice regularly advises on complex matters from reorganisations and collective lay-offs to management packages and employee incentivisation.

The dispute resolution team is skilled in complex litigation, international arbitration, tax, competition, labour, fraud and regulatory disputes, complex settlements and pre-dispute situations.

The TMT team advises the leading telecommunications, media and IT players on acquisitions and finance projects as well as in relation to interconnection, complex contracted structures and regulatory compliance matters.

Department Name Email Telephone
Corporate and M&A Cristina Filip
Corporate and M&A Alexandru Birsan
Corporate and M&A Ioan Dumitrascu
Banking and finance Alina Stancu Birsan
Banking and finance Alexandru Birsan
EU law and competition Catalin Suliman
Energy and natural resources Cristina Filip
Energy and natural resources Alina Stancu Birsan
Commercial Ioan Dumitrascu
Commercial Cristina Filip
Projects Alina Stancu Birsan
Labour Ioan Dumitrascu
Dispute resolution Catalin Alexandru
TMT Cristina Filip
TMT Alexandru Birsan
Number of lawyers : 71


1. Overview

With a robust GDP growth of 3.6% in 2015 and a forecast of 4.2% for 2016, Romania is well on its way as one of the fastest-growing economies in the EU.

In doing so, Romania relies on more than its traditional advantages, such as being the largest market in south-eastern Europe and second largest in the CEE region, at the crossroads of the major routes linking Europe, the Middle East and the Commonwealth of Independent States trade routes, rich in natural resources, and having a well-skilled and relatively inexpensive work force.

In addition to these, Romania’s growth has been driven by recent wage increases, fiscal relaxation, a stable currency and, last but not least, by EU cohesion and agriculture funds of over €32bn, received in the period 2014-2020. The rate of absorption of these funds is expected to improve significantly compared to the previous period.

In February 2016, the European Commission published its forecasts for Romania, predicting strong growth amid fiscal relaxation and certain financial risks. The Commission points to stable investor confidence and continued growth in local currency lending as the main factors helping to sustain private investment growth. According to the Commission, domestic demand is set to remain the driver of growth in 2016 and 2017.

The fiscal deficit is likely to increase in 2016, mainly because of tax cuts and wage increases in the public sector. These will, in turn, help boost private consumption to a European forecasted increase of 6.9% year on year. At its turn, public spending on investments will likely focus on infrastructure, transport and the environment.

On the political stage, the end of 2015 saw the resignation of the social-democratic government and the appointment of an interim technocratic government led by Dacian Ciolos, a former European Commissioner.

Anti-corruption efforts and results continue to increase with the National Anti-Corruption Directorate being at the forefront prosecuting high profile businessmen and politicians.

Romania’s growth perspective fosters a business environment filled with opportunities (section 2), set against a modernised, flexible and hopefully stable legal background (section 3), making it easier for foreign investors to enter the market and generate value (section 4).

2. Business opportunities

2.1 Public sector – infrastructure works

Romania’s growth has traditionally been challenged by its outdated infrastructure, which remains underdeveloped relative to the volume of goods and passengers transiting in Romanian territory.

An important opportunity for change was in July 2015, when the European Commission accepted Romania’s General Transportation Masterplan, a strategic document that defines and prioritises Romania’s transport infrastructure investments for the next 15 years.

Furthermore, also in July 2015, the European Commission approved the Large Infrastructure Operational Programme, which sets out the utilisation of EU funds for the transport, environment and energy sectors for 2014-2020.

Another incentive for infrastructure development comes from the opportunity for Romania to organise some of the 2020 European Football Championship’s matches. Yet this is subject to UEFA’s requirement that Romania modernise the motorway and railroad connections to the west, the urban transportation system in the capital, Bucharest, and several sport arenas.

At the same time, from the perspective of environment infrastructure, €3bn are available in EU funds that municipalities can apply for, by the end of 2016, in relation to water and wastewater construction or rehabilitation projects.

In the field of energy, the national oil and gas transport operator Transgaz plans to build the pipeline network needed to take over the gas to be extracted from the Black Sea and further distribute it towards Western Europe.

2.2 Private sector – M&A transactions and commercial activity

Romania’s main economic sectors are agriculture and automotive, with automotive contributing by far the most to Romania’s exports. In addition to these, dynamic areas in 2016 will likely include banking, IT, business services and tourism.

The M&A market has seen an increase in activity in 2015 compared with 2014. In 2016, one should expect the most active sectors to remain the same.

In banking and financial services, one might expect the exit of a number of international banks and sale of their Romanian businesses. The consolidation trend should continue in healthcare, as well as in agribusiness. Office space development will make the headlines in real estate transactions, while retail and residential will continue to struggle.

Other sectors expected to see M&A activity include IT and retail.

3. New legal framework

The enactment in 2011 of a new Civil Code, replacing the almost 150-year-old preceding one, has since been complemented by a new Civil Procedure Code in 2013, new Criminal and Criminal Procedure Codes in 2014, a new Insolvency Law in the same year, as well as a new Tax Code and Tax Procedure Code in 2015. Last but not least, a brand new public procurement legislation is on the verge of being enacted. The criminal legislation has been renewed in 2014 as well.

As a salutary counterpoint, one should note the relative stability of the Romanian Company Law, which has undergone rather few changes in the last 10 years, compared to other legal areas.

3.1 Civil procedure

The new Civil Procedure Code is a milestone in the reformation of Romania’s judiciary. It carries out a systematic and thorough review of the dispute resolution mechanisms. It aims to make the proceedings more efficient, primarily by reducing the duration of civil litigation cases either by amending and modernising existing procedures or introducing new ones.

For instance, procedural postponements in the initial phase of the litigation are now significantly reduced as the first hearing is set only after both parties have made their initial submissions and have exchanged most of the evidence they intend to rely upon. In practice, this has been very useful and courts and parties alike now have greater predictability and control over the duration and development of the proceedings in the first tier of jurisdiction.

Other mechanisms for reducing the duration of cases include the right to use electronic means of communication in a number of situations, the right to file a complaint if the case is unnecessarily delayed by the court itself, or certain limitations to the access to extraordinary appeals.

On the negative side, a new filtering procedure has been instituted for higher appeals heard by the High Court of Cassation and Justice. The aim was to strike out higher appeals not meeting minimal standards. Unfortunately, it has had the opposite effect: while the grounds for rejection at this stage are purely formal, all higher appeals are now delayed for very long periods before getting through the filter and being heard by the High Court.

Another novelty of the new Civil Procedure Code is the High Court’s possibility to issue mandatory guideline rulings interpreting the law on novel matters. In time, this will have a positive impact on the harmonisation of the legal practice, which is currently well known for being contradictory and unpredictable.

The enforcement of court rulings (and arbitral awards as well) has been streamlined by eliminating a redundant phase, which required a formal verification that the relevant ruling was capable of being enforced.

3.2 Insolvency

The new Insolvency Law unified previously disparate insolvency and pre-insolvency procedures under one roof and reduced both the number of insolvency cases and their duration.

The new law set a debt value minimal threshold for the debtor’s own application to open insolvency, thus reducing abusive claims by defaulting debtors looking to avoid enforcement.

It also set a deadline of one year for drafting the final creditors’ table and moved the valuation of the debtor’s patrimony to an incipient phase of the procedure, which had the effect of shortening the overall duration of the insolvency procedure.

Other useful novelties concern the insolvency of groups of companies and encouraging the financing of insolvent companies by granting the financier a super-privilege over the debtor’s assets.

3.3 Fiscal legislation

The beginning of 2016 brought the resetting of the fiscal legislation through the enactment of the new Fiscal Code and Fiscal Procedure Code. These will hopefully bring some stability and predictability into an otherwise ever-changing fiscal landscape.

The Fiscal Code introduces a number of measures aimed at improving the collection of budgetary revenues. In this context, one of the most important measures set forth by the new Fiscal Code is the decrease of the standard VAT rate from 24% to 20% as of 1 January 2016 and to 19% as of 1 January 2017. The dividend tax also dropped to 5% (and can even be reduced to zero under certain circumstances).

The new Fiscal Code also includes a different re-assessment of excise duties, direct taxes (ie profit tax, income tax, local taxes and duties) and social contributions (ie mandatory social contributions and health contributions).

At its turn, the new Fiscal Procedure Code introduced a system of penalties designed to incentivise voluntary compliance and dissuade tax evasion.

3.4 Public procurement

By 18 April 2016, Romania should have transposed the new 2014 EU Directives on public procurement; on procurement by entities operating in the water, energy, transport and postal services sector; and on the award of concession contracts. The transposition deadline has not been observed. Fortunately, it still seems feasible to have the new legislation enacted in May 2016. By the time this material was drafted, the primary legislation pack had been approved by the government and undergoing Parliamentary proceedings, while secondary legislation had been drafted and submitted for public debate.

The law maker’s new vision separates the existing field of regulation into four laws covering ordinary public procurement, utilities contracts, concession contracts and remedies.

The various award procedures provide tighter deadlines, easier filings (the draft laws regulate the use of electronic means), more streamlined processes and should reduce the overall duration of the contract award process.

The available award criteria now includes the lowest cost, which will be determined based on the life-cycle costing, for instance. For contracts involving intellectual activities and complex activities, the only award criterion available will be the best price-quality ratio, excluding the best price and the lowest cost.

Before launching the procedure, contracting authorities may conduct preliminary market consultations to prepare the procurement and inform economic operators of their procurement plans and requirements.

Another noteworthy novelty is that procurement procedures for lower-value contracts (up to approximately €5m for works; for supplies and services, €132,000 for ordinary procurement and €400,000 for utilities contracts) may be subjected by the contracting authorities to a simplified procedure with shorter deadlines and where the selection criteria are restricted to the lack of exclusion grounds, the suitability to pursue the professional activity and the similar experience demonstrated by prior contracts.

In the light of the Directives, the exclusion grounds have been detailed to include, for instance, the situation where the economic operator has been previously involved in competition distorting practices in relation to public procurement.

With regard to utilities contracts procurement, the draft law finally acknowledges the difference between contracting authorities and contracting entities, affording more flexible regulations to the latter.

In its turn, the draft remedies law seeks to reduce litigation in terms of number of cases and duration. One tool in pursuing this objective is the contestant’s obligation to post a bond before seeking a court ruling to stay the procurement procedure or the execution of the contract.

3.5 Criminal legislation

The new Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code of 2014 replaced the communist-era versions. New business-related crimes have been regulated (distortion of public tenders, breach of trust by defrauding creditors) and the criminal liability of legal persons has been clarified. The new Criminal Code notably provides for the transfer of criminal liability in case of merger or spin-off of the legal person.

The new Criminal Procedure Code is expected to lead to faster-paced criminal investigations and criminal trials.

From an investor perspective, these new Codes will hopefully increase the sanitisation of the business environment.

4. Investing in Romania

4.1 Setting up, operating and divesting from a company

The Romanian Company Law has been aligned with the EU legislation through the implementation of the Company Directives.

Of the corporate structures available, in practice the joint stock company and the limited liability company are very widely used. Typically and save for regulated sectors such as banking and insurance, the minimum share capital is of some €20,000 for joint stock companies (of which at least 30% should be paid upon incorporation) and some €45 for limited liability companies. Limited liability companies are rather loosely regulated, which in practice translates at the same time into flexibility and uncertainty.

Companies can be managed either by a sole director or by several directors which, in the case of joint stock companies, form a board of directors. The two-tier system (supervisory board and managing board) is also available. There is no restriction in terms of nationality for shareholders or managers, which can be natural and legal persons alike.

Although unregulated, instruments such as joint venture agreements and shareholders agreements are often used in practice. Unless mirrored by the company’s articles of association, these agreements may be difficult to enforce against new shareholders.

As a principle, shareholder liability is limited to the share capital contribution. Unlimited liability is possible in certain conditions provided by the Company Law or Insolvency Law, such as the shareholder’s abusing the limited nature of its liability.

Shares may be freely divested in joint stock companies or between existing shareholders of a limited liability company. In the latter case, transfer of shares to third parties requires the approval of shareholders holding at least 75% of the share capital and may only be implemented after a 30-day period during which creditors may oppose the transfer. In practice, if the company has debts towards the state budget, fiscal authorities are likely to file oppositions and delay the process. Recent legislative changes have also clarified and simplified the procedure for pledging and enforcing shares in limited liability companies.

4.2 Dealing with authorities

4.2.1 Trade Registry

The Trade Registry ensures the publicity of various events – from registration to deregistration – in the life of companies, some freelancers and other entities.

Companies will find that the Trade Registry tends to be rather formalistic, especially when it has to deal with more sensitive or complex operations. Clerks will closely scrutinise the details of the documentation filed, which should be carefully prepared.

While the process is meticulous, it is also time-efficient. Any filing with the Trade Registry should, and in practice generally is, resolved within three business days (save for mandatory legal delays for the protection of creditors and other third parties). Clerks are, however, entitled to request additional clarifications and supporting documentation, which may delay the registration process.

4.2.2 Competition authority

The Romanian Competition Council (RCC) is in charge with the enforcement of antitrust, and merger control unfair competition legislation. The RCC also has the role of national contact authority on state aid matters between the European Commission, and the state aid suppliers and their beneficiaries.

The RCC is a very active authority and follows closely the trends and practice of the European Union. In merger control cases, the RCC usually takes between two and three months to clear a merger raising no dominance concerns. However, the parties may often be able to accelerate the procedure by consulting with the RCC prior to the filing. This informal approach is also useful to clarify various aspects and afford the parties a better visibility into the transaction schedule. Most of the RCC’s decisions have been issued in the first phase of the procedure, without going into the investigation phase, while no merger prohibition decisions have been issued since 2001. On the other hand, the RCC looks closely at and sanctions gun-jumping practices – failure to notify a transaction and implementation before obtaining clearance.

On the antitrust side, the RCC has scrutinised several markets with sensitive political and economic impact at the end-consumer level, including the distribution and retail sales of pharmaceutical products, the distribution and retail sale of various fast-moving consumer goods, the distribution of prepaid mobile telephony products and the electronic communications sector in general, self-regulated sectors of professionals activities (accountants, notaries), as well as the construction and energy sectors.

After having investigated a significant number of vertical agreements, the RCC seems to have shifted its focus towards horizontal practices, and particular attention is placed on the scrutiny of public procurement procedures. In the investigation of bid rigging practices in public tenders, the RCC works closely with criminal authorities.

Moreover, the RCC implemented an electronic communications platform for whistle-blowing, through which information and tips on anticompetitive practices may be transmitted to the authority while the anonymity of the platform’s user is guaranteed.

The RCC’s fervent activity and the bitter fines that could follow an investigation make a strong case for implementing compliance trainings and programmes. At the very least, compliance training could constitute a mitigating circumstance, reducing the fine applied by the RCC.

4.2.3 Environment protection authorities

In Romania, state authorities specialised in environmental protection matters are mainly the Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests. It acts as the main body with authority at national and county levels, local environmental protection agencies and the National Environmental Guard, and is in charge of investigation and control activities in the field.

Environmental protection procedures can sometimes be seen by investors as rather cumbersome, as some of the required steps that need to be undertaken are lengthy and are at times subject to the authorities’ discretion.

Depending on the impact of an activity on the environment, most of the environmental permits held by investors (such as the environmental or the IPPC authorisations) can be seen as imposing diverse and numerous compliance measures, which are closely monitored by the Environmental Guard. On the other hand, the fact that most environmental permits are very comprehensive and detailed is also seen as a useful way for investors and their compliance teams to keep a close eye into the environmental requirements and expectations, and their compliance timetable.

The authorities responsible at local or county level may sometimes have different views on the way in which the environmental legal framework law should be read and applied, although recent years have brought some positive perspective on the competence, care and diligence with which environmental authorities carry out their duties.

4.3 Hiring and dismissing employees

Though successive legislative changes aimed to provide greater flexibility in employment relationships, they continue to be strictly regulated and leaning towards the employee.

Individual labour agreements (ILA) are concluded in writing and typically for an indefinite period of time. Pre-employment checks are allowed if limited to a specific scope and purpose. An ILA should have a job description appended to it. Job descriptions are often missing in practice, which makes it difficult to sanction an employee for poor performance or dismiss them on disciplinary or economic grounds.

EU citizens may be employed under the same conditions as Romanian nationals (save for certain additional formalities with the Romanian Immigration Authority regarding the right to stay in Romania). Non-EU citizens are required to obtain a work permit in advance and can only be hired under certain conditions. Romanian law also allows foreign employees to be seconded to Romania for a limited period of time.

The minimum salary of some €240 will increase as of 1 May 2016 to some €280.

Working time is regulated in detail. As a rule, no overtime work can be performed without the employee’s consent. Overtime is compensated for with paid time off in lieu, or, if that is not possible, with an additional allowance to the salary.

The dismissal of an employee can only occur in very particular situations and in all cases the employer must follow strict procedural rules. This is very important as otherwise the court will annul the employment decision and order full compensation in favour of the employee. Employment litigation is not subject to judicial stamp duties and therefore inexpensive for employees. At the same time courts tend to be employee-friendly, while the burden of proof rests with the employer.

4.4 Securing obligations and enforcing contracts

Obligations can be secured and enforced by contract clauses and setting up guarantees. If these fail, creditors can resort to litigation and, eventually, to insolvency.

As first steps in securing the performance of contract obligations, Romanian contract law allows default interest and penalty clauses, whereby the parties predetermine the value of the damage caused by non-performance.

The law also allows setting up real and personal guarantees, and placing mortgages over movables and immovables. The latter are constituted through registration with the Land Book, while the former should be registered in a public electronic archive so as to be effective against third parties and gain priority ranking. It is noteworthy that mortgages on receivables can be enforced by claiming direct payment from the underlying debtor.

If contracts turn on a litigious path, the vast majority of cases are settled in courts through litigation. The duration of court proceedings has shortened with the application of the new Civil Procedure Code, but there are still many improvements to be made, especially in complex cases. Also, after a setback in the wake of a corruption scandal involving the President of the local Chambers of Commerce and Industry, arbitration appears to making a recovery, with a new court – the Bucharest International Arbitration Center – being set up by the American Chamber of Commerce. Mediation is rarely used in practice.

Creditors with due and uncontested receivables may resort to the swift procedure of payment summons which works well in practice. The law also allows creditors to preserve their debtor’s enforceable assets by asking the court to order attachments or garnishments. Posting a bond is normally required.

Once the creditor obtains a final ruling, enforcement is made by bailiffs, who are public officers acting under the control of the Ministry of Justice. Enforcement based on a court ruling as enforceable title may be challenged on formal grounds only for alleged irregularities in the enforcement procedure, but not on the merits.

Besides court judgments and arbitration awards, other enforceable titles include loan agreements concluded with banks or, under certain conditions, notary authenticated contracts, including the obligation to pay an amount of money.

The final resort is the debtor’s insolvency, but, in practice, though recent improvements have been made, insolvency and bankruptcy procedures take a lot of time while unsecured creditors risk an incomplete recovery or even no recovery at all.