Information technology in Ireland

A&L Goodbody LLP

A&L Goodbody LLP's information technology team handles a range of matters in this area, including contentious and non-contentious data protection issues  and advising clients on outsourcing. The team also handles intellectual property disputes involving technology patents. Practice head John Whelan is experienced in commercial, contentious and regulatory work, while John Cahir is known for his work acting for technology clients in disputes and transactions. The practice also acts alongside the firm's corporate team to handle M&A transactions in this sector.

Practice head(s):

John Whelan

Other key lawyers:

John Cahir

Key clients

Symantec Limited

Digital Europe

Comcast Cable Communications, LLC


Amgen Technology (Ireland) Unlimited Company and Amgen, Inc.

Work highlights

  • Representing Digital Europe, as an amicus party, in the proceedings in the Irish Commercial Court and the CJEU concerning the validity of the European Commission standard contractual clauses (commonly known as “Schrems II”).

Arthur Cox

Arthur Cox advises clients from sectors including banking, consumer services, and manufacturing on technology matters. The team also assists a number of technology companies in the development of products and services, handling the drafting of any commercial contracts required in their business models. Practice head Rob Corbet advises on the protection of technological intellectual property as well as its commercial use, while Colin Rooney helps clients ensure that their processing of data complies with Irish data protection law. Consultant Pearse Ryan is also recommended and has a broad practice in this area.

Practice head(s):

Rob Corbet

Other key lawyers:

Colin Rooney; Pearse Ryan

Key clients

CRH plc


Flutter Entertainment plc

Genuity Science/Genomics Medicine Limited

Egis Road and Tunnel


Viridian Group


Openmind Networks Limited

Trinity College Dublin

Work highlights

  • Advising Origin Enterprises on strategic IP research and development agreements in the specialist agronomy sector including new technology applications.
  • Advised Flutter Entertainment plc, an Irish-incorporated and dual Irish/UK listed company, on its recommended all-share combination with The Stars Group Inc to create a global leader in sports betting and gaming.
  • Advised the European Commission on the SWIPO Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) Codes of Conduct pursuant to Article 6 of the Free Flow of Non Personal Data Regulation (EU2018/1807).

Mason Hayes & Curran LLP

Mason Hayes & Curran LLP handles contractual, regulatory, and data protection matters for some of the most prominent multinationals in the Irish market. The team assists clients with drafting contracts with customers as well as commercial purchasers, and frequently acts for companies offering software-as-a-service products. Philip Nolan leads the practice, and has a client base including international and Irish technology companies. Robert McDonagh acts for both state bodies and the private sector in contractual work, while John Farrell 'stands out for his ability to bring practical solutions to complicated technology problems'.

Practice head(s):

Philip Nolan

Other key lawyers:

Robert McDonagh; John Farrell; Wendy Hederman; Kate Higgs


‘A really strong team who understand the law relating to our business so well and is able to articulate to non-law people in a very simple way. This is really helpful to us where we see them being very unique. Our engagements with MHC have been excellent and they always pull through when advice is required, even at short notice.’

‘John Farrell is our trusted legal advisor who has helped us enormously over the past two years. With his help we have secured contracts with MNCs at speed and on terms favourable to our company. John explains the law in a clear and concise way for us to understand and he understands the commercial needs we have without complicating the law for us.’

‘Robert McDonagh and Ruairi McDermott have given us very practical and concise advice even about very complicated matters. They’ve become my go-to for GDPR advice.’

‘Mason Hayes & Curran’s information technology lawyers are as passionate about the technology as they are the law. The firm has handpicked and trained professionals who speak and understand the language of technology.’

‘John Farrell stands out as a rising star within Mason Hayes & Curran’s information technology department. John’s interest in, and understanding of, technology is second to none, while his manner is practical, approachable and helpful. No question is too big or too small and I would not hesitate to recommend John to start-ups and multinationals alike. ’

‘I think what makes MHC’s IT practice unique is how practical they are. Unlike other firms of their scale they have an incredible ability to find working solutions rather than simply spotting issues or giving warnings. Central to their approach is adopting a truly commercial outlook that means it feels like you’re working with colleagues or teammates rather than consultants.’

‘John Farrell in particular stands out for his ability to bring practical solutions to complicated technology problems. His patience, personable manner and ability to distil intricate obstacles into pragmatic steps makes him a leading advisor in the Irish market. Additionally his work with some of the leading global technology companies means he’s in a unique position to leverage his experience on a variety of privacy, commercial and e-commerce matters. Kate Higgs also deserves mention as someone who provides clear-cut advice and can anticipate exactly what to focus on even on the largest of projects. Kate can always be relied upon to cut to the core of a problem and has a distinct talent for coming up with innovative options, especially with regard to data protection challenges.’

‘John Farrell is an excellent resource to the firm, with the broad knowledge needed in larger commercial contract transactions, whilst always willing to get into the details when needed. The efficient yet methodical approach from Kate Higgs has been key to identifying and addressing issues, before they even arise.’

Key clients

Department of Communications, Climate Action & Environment


WhatsApp Ireland Limited

Facebook Ireland Limited

Instagram (Facebook Ireland Limited)






Riot Games

Commission for Communications Regulation


Work highlights

  • Acted as the sole advisors to the Department of Communications, Climate Action & Environment over a six-year period on all aspects of the National Broadband Plan.
  • Acting as Udemy’s sole legal advisors in Europe, including handling the process of managing a large portion of its contract negotiations with key European customers to support the legal team which is based in California.
  • Acting as standing EU privacy and technology law counsel to Facebook.


'Extremely flexible and practical', Matheson's technology practice spans the full gamut of work in this area, including contentious and non-contentious matters. The team provides ongoing advice to technology multinationals on matters involving regulators such as the Data Protection Commission, among other issues. The practice has a particular specialism in working with financial institutions, advising these clients on commercial technology transactions. Practice head Anne-Marie Bohan is particularly active in advising financial sector clients on outsourcing, while Deirdre Kilroy handles data protection matters. Chris Bollard advises a range of multinational clients on commercial matters.

Practice head(s):

Anne-Marie Bohan

Other key lawyers:

Deirdre Kilroy; Chris Bollard; Carlo Salizzo


‘Matheson is one of the strongest firms in Ireland at all levels. They have a particularly strong IT, tech and IP group. They are extremely flexible and practical in their approach and always looking to support their clients proactively.’

‘Anne-Marie Bohan is excellent. Always open, always creative and very practical. I’ve been using the firm for over 20 years and her approach and value for money has been the reason why we keep on using Matheson. An excellent lawyer.’

‘I value my firm’s relationship with Matheson very highly. Chris Bollard leads an enthusiastic young team, who are incredibly keen not just to provide advice, but also to learn about our business. The Matheson team is certainly up there with some of the best teams in Ireland that I’ve worked with. Mathesons’ willingness to get underneath the bonnet and really understand the business is a huge asset. Our business is complex but I always have confidence that Chris and the team will really look into the technical details that surround the legal issues in order to inform their analysis.’

‘The stand out for me is Chris Bollard. He is a trusted adviser and a great ally. Chris has a genuine interest in our business and has tackled many complex issue for me. Because he makes a real effort to understand not just the legal issues, but also the business dynamics, he is able to craft advice is a way that is most optimal for me to understand, implement, or escalate, as the need arises. I see Chris not just as a business adviser, but a true partner to our business.’

‘Excellent technical knowledge and industry/regulatory insights. The responsiveness, support and detailed attention on urgent matters is really appreciated.’

Key clients




Permanent tsb


The Enet Consortium

An Post

Credit Suisse





McCann FitzGerald

McCann FitzGerald's information technology practice spans the full gamut of work in this sector, and the group acts for domestic and international companies as well as public sector bodies. The team provides regulatory and contractual advice, and also advises on some of the highest value procurement and outsourcing agreements on the market. Practice head Paul Lavery is 'very pragmatic and solutions focused'; Adam Finlay and Douglas McMahon also have broad practices and are other key names.

Practice head(s):

Paul Lavery

Other key lawyers:

Adam Finlay; Douglas McMahon


‘Incredibly responsive and always available. Very solutions focused. Technically strong with good commercial accumen. ’

‘Paul Lavery is very knowledgeable and excellent at breaking things down and explaining complicated matters in a very clear, easy to understand way. Very pragmatic and solutions focused, very good negotiating style, always available and always very pleasant to deal with. ’

‘Paul Lavery provides practical solutions to complex problems. ’

‘The advice is top notch. The team knows its brief inside out. Advice received is practical and very commercially orientated. When I call this team about a query, I feel that I am calling a friend for advice. I have an enormous amount of trust in this team and they are always my first port of call. They are available 24/7. They are excellent value for money.’

‘Paul Lavery and Doug McMahon’s advice is top notch. They explain the law and provide commercial solutions. They would answer the phone to me at midnight. They are very friendly and their client care is excellent. They have never missed a deadline. I would be lost without them.’

‘Well rounded practice with a broad range of expertise in areas such as IT contracts, data protection, outsourcing and commercial contracts, fintech, advertising, pharma etc. There is always a focus on practical advice and enabling business. ’

‘I work mainly with Doug MacMahon. Doug is very responsive and provides helpful and practical advice quickly and efficiently. It is a pleasure to deal with him. ’

Key clients

AerCap Ireland Limited


Roche Products (Ireland) Limited




Irish Life

Navi Group


Transport Infrastructure Ireland

Institute of Banking

Ervia and Irish Water

National Transport Authority

BWG Foods



Ulster Bank

Córas Iompair Éireann (CIÉ)


Work highlights

  • Advising AerCap on a variety of IT agreements under which AerCap procures various IT products and services from technology service providers to support its global business operations.
  • Advised CarTrawler on its white-label partner agreements with American Airlines, Alaskan Airlines and Odigeo, its agreements with third-party providers of car images, the impact of GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act on its business and its GDPR compliance, in particular in relation to queries regarding its agency/distributor business model.
  • Advising Microsoft on a range of technology matters, including in relation to the legal framework for the interception of communications in Ireland and relevant legislative developments, dealing with requests for access to data received from Irish and foreign law enforcement authorities, including under the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) regime, and developments at an EU level regarding laws governing access to electronic communications.

William Fry

William Fry handles technology matters including advising on technology service agreements, regulatory issues surrounding the rollout of new products, and strategic partnerships in this sector. The practice is also highly active in advising on M&A transactions involving technology companies. The team, which is praised by clients as 'very experienced, responsive and commercially savvy', is led by David Cullen, a specialist in technology contracts and data protection work. Leo Moore is 'very experienced and commercially astute' and John O’Connor handles commercial transactions including outsourcing and licensing agreements.

Practice head(s):

David Cullen

Other key lawyers:

Leo Moore; John O’Connor


‘Leo and his team make a big effort to get to know the breadth of your business and the nuance of how your company culture works, so that they can help you make the best risk-based decisions quickly. Leo and his team also have a very strong local network and insight into how EU data protection works in practice as well as in theory.’

‘I continue to be impressed with Leo Moore’s desire to learn about my business, learn with me on related topics and ensure our working relationship remains strong.’

‘Very experienced, responsive and commercially savvy. ’

‘Leo Moore is very experienced and commercially astute. Rachel Hayes is very responsive, smart and practical.’

Key clients

BSA | The Software Alliance

National Treasury Management Agency






Smurfit Kappa








Work highlights

  • Acting for BSA | The Software Alliance, whose members include Microsoft, Apple, Adobe, Oracle, Salesforce, SAS, Intel and Siemens, in the Schrems II case.
  • Representing the National Treasury Management Agency in relation to the establishment of an escrow facility to hold the €13 billion back-payment of tax at issue in the Apple case.
  • Advised Qorvo US, Inc on its acquisition of Decawave Limited, an Irish fabless semi-conductor company specialising in precise location and connectivity applications.

Beauchamps LLP

Beauchamps advises on master supply and IT services agreements as well as the licensing of technology products, acting for clients in the consultancy, technology, and logistics sectors. The practice also advises on data protection matters, assisting firms with GDPR compliance as well as the drafting of data processing agreements. Maureen Daly leads the team, and has 15 years' experience in this area, while Damian Maloney is a specialist, having previously worked in-house in the technology sector. Corporate and commercial partner Edward Evans is also active in advising on technology transactions.

Practice head(s):

Maureen Daly

Other key lawyers:

Damian Maloney; Edward Evans


‘Excellent knowledge of international IT, intellectual property and associated contract law along with broad skills to assist with contract negotiations and disputes. The lead legal firm managing large scale complex IT/IP international arbitration over last two years.’

‘Our primary solicitor is Edward Evans. He provides excellent pragmatic advice from both a legal and commercial perspective and excels in both customer facing and adversarial environments. The rest of the team have been great too.’

Key clients

Share Now GmbH

Vivid Media Limited


St. Vincent de Pauls

Behaviour & Attitudes

Vromo Limited

Hire Up


J2 Global

Work highlights

  • Advised Share Now GmbH on a master services agreement with DocuSign.
  • Advised SoftCo on the drafting and amending of licence terms and related master supply and IT services agreements for AP and P2P software solutions.
  • Advised Hire Up on the provision of standard licence and IT supply terms for use in EMEA and the US for Hire Up’s employee referral and retention solution.

Eugene F. Collins

Eugene F. Collins frequently advises clients on licensing arrangements for software, acting for both the suppliers of software and their customers. The practice also handles regulatory matters, particularly in the data protection sphere, as well as corporate transactions involving technology companies. David Hackett leads the team, which frequently collaborates with the firm's corporate team to handle matters.

Practice head(s):

David Hackett

Other key lawyers:

Jane Farren

Key clients

BMW Automotive Ireland and BMW Financial Services Ireland

Flutter plc (previously PaddyPower Betfair)

National Children’s Research Centre

OSG Group

Mango Retail Ireland

SYSCO Software Solutions

Vestas Northern Europe AB

Johnson & Johnson Corporation

McGee Pharma International

Harvey Norman Trading (Ireland) Limited

Harvey Norman Holdings (Australia) Limited

Kylemore Abbey Trust


Hickey & Co Limited

Social Talent Limited

Kepak Group

Dawn Farm Foods Limited

Rosderra Limited

P J Rigney Distillery and International Brands Limited

The Juice Plus+ Company, LLC

Johnson & Johnson Group (includes Neutrogena Corporation, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies, DePuy Synthes, Inc.)

The Farm Channel

Atlantic Therapeutics Group Limited

Society for Chartered Surveyors Ireland (SCSI)

Trojan Battery

Marks & Spencer

New Look

Chevron Intellectual Property




Cilag GMBH International

British Sky Broadcasting Group plc

Intune Networks Limited (Receiver –BDO)

Vodafone Ireland

Virgin Media

Ask 4 Broadband

AA Ireland

Tifco Hotel Group

Irish Hospice Foundation

FCR Media

Aerospace Software Developments

FCR Media Limited

Sky Ireland Limited (Formerly BskyB)

Gibney Communications Limited

Aylien Limited

Collinson Insurances

Caci Life

Grosvenor Services Limited

Irish Province of the Dominican Order

Bank of America

Medmark Limited


Bath Fitter Inc

Oxford Global Resources

B Braun Medical

Gist Distribution

Morgan O’Sullivan

Work highlights

  • Advised Arkphire on matters related to its acquisition of Trilogy.
  • Advised Rosderra on the supply of a new SAP/CRM IT to replace a legacy system which had been made available to Rosderra as part of a transitional services arrangement when it had exited the Glanbia Group.
  • Advised AerTemp on Software as a Service (SAAS) licensing arrangements in respect of its proprietary IT recruitment system for deployment of temporary staff. The agreements had to take account of a number of different distribution arrangements including supply of the system as a standalone branded AerTemp product as well as integration as a “white label” system within existing customer IT offerings.

Eversheds Sutherland

Eversheds Sutherland acts for tech start-ups and established companies active in the IT space, advising on commercial contracts and data protection matters. The practice also advises companies in other sectors, including education, financial services, and media, on technology-related issues. The team is also active in the growing area of data centres. Marie McGinley leads the practice, and in addition to her data protection work also handles technology-related intellectual property matters. Corporate partner Peter O’Neill is another key figure in the team.

Practice head(s):

Marie McGinley

Other key lawyers:

Peter O’Neill

Key clients

Independent News and Media

CyrusOne LLC

CSS Holdings, LLC

Webdoctor Limited

Sun Life Financial of Canada

Woebot Labs

Adaptics Limited (trading as Drop)

Anam Technologies Limited

EirGrid plc

Educational Research Centre


Turas Mobility Services Ireland

Work highlights

  • Advised WebDoctor on an agreement with ResMed-PEI to develop a new hosted software platform which will provide medical services related to sleep apnoea to patients using the WebDoctor service.
  • Advised Turas on the new national electronic tolling project on the M50 motorway worth a reported €373m.
  • Advised Woebot on the third party agreements relating to online and voice-based cognitive behavioural therapy services developed by Woebot.

LK Shields Solicitors LLP

LK Shields Solicitors LLP advises on corporate and commercial transactions in the technology space, such as M&A transactions involving technology companies and service agreements. The practice additionally advises on data protection matters as well as the development of new technological products, such as e-commerce platforms. The team is also noted for its experience in the betting and gaming area, and is frequently sought out to assist with regulatory issues. Practice head Peter Bolger specialises in technology-related IP matters. Ciaran Markey leads on contentious matters, including disputes involving technological patents. Jeanne Kelly is another key name.

Practice head(s):

Peter Bolger

Other key lawyers:

Jeanne Kelly; Ciaran Markey

Key clients



&Open Gifts Limited

Baily Labs

Indigo Telecom

Lantale Limited

Integrated Facilities Solutions

Max Benjamin

Work highlights

  • Advised an international IT and document management provider on the acquisition of an ERP solution to operate across all its business functions
  • Advising a fintech software provider on its international software reseller arrangements and enterprise solutions with global banks.
  • Advising a software company on the consumer law aspects of an online platform including a regulatory investigation and associated written submissions to the European Commission on related issues of EU law and state aid.

ByrneWallace LLP

ByrneWallace LLP stands out for its work advising burgeoning technology companies on commercial matters. The technology team, led by Darren Daly, also frequently collaborates with the firm's corporate practice to advise on M&A transactions and financing rounds. In addition to Daly, Neil Keenan is another partner active in this area.

Practice head(s):

Darren Daly

Other key lawyers:

Neil Keenan

Key clients

Environmental Protection Agency

M&M Walshe Holdings Limited (topco of group with three trading arms: Ribworld, Callan Bacon and Stirchley Bacon)




Daimler Benz


DNM Technology Group




Headway Software Technologies Limited

Integrity 360



Interactive Services


Prepay Power

Remote Games Limited


Ubiqube (Ireland) Limited

Induction Manager


Not a Hotel Ventures Limited (BOB W)


Internet Corp (now Ekco)

Work highlights

  • Advised Fivetran on the establishment of its Irish operations and Irish aspects of its fundraising.
  • Assisting Leveris, an Irish fintech company, with its €100M+ Series A funding round.
  • Advised Daimler Benz on cloud computing and data protection issues in relation to in-car WiFi technology.

DAC Beachcroft Dublin

DAC Beachcroft Dublin's IT practice, which is part of the firm's cyber and data risk team, is led by Rowena McCormack and Aidan Healy. On the information technology side, the key partners are Joanne Finn and Sharon McCaffrey, who both joined the practice in 2019 from ByrneWallace; the duo advise on commercial and regulatory work in the information technology sector, acting for both private and public sector clients.

Practice head(s):

Rowena McCormack; Aidan Healy

Other key lawyers:

Joanne Finn; Sharon McCaffrey

Key clients

Sport Ireland


Irish Horseracing Regulatory Board

Link ASI Limited (formerly Capita Asset Management)

Health Market Research Ireland Limited (hmR Ireland)

Multiple Insurer clients



Irish Pharmacy Union

Health care provider

Work highlights

  • Advising Sport Ireland on GDPR and the implications for the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code and data collection processes and anti-doping investigations and intelligence gathering, as well as the sharing of data with other anti-doping organisations and Irish public bodies and other data protection matters.
  • Advising Health Market Research Ireland on data protection issues in relation to anonymisation and pseudonymisation as well as drafting a legitimate interests assessment template for use within the business.
  • Advising the Irish Pharmacy Union and its members on liaison with the Data Protection Commission, data protection issues with the HSE and the drafting of guidance to assist pharmacies in meeting their obligations under the GDPR.

Philip Lee

Philip Lee is well known for its work for public sector clients, where it advises on the procurement of ICT systems as well as assisting with issues such as data breaches. The team also acts for private sector clients and has a particular focus on the healthcare industry. Sean McElligott leads the team, with Anne Bateman another key partner.

Practice head(s):

Sean McElligott

Other key lawyers:

Anne Bateman

Key clients

Health Service Executive

New Childrens Hospital

Student Universal Support Ireland (SUSI)

Credit Unions Cloud Bank

Bord Iascaigh Mhara

Data Protection Commission

Horseware Products Limited

National Treasury Management Agency

Work highlights

  • Advise the Health Service Executive on the engagement of a system integrator to design, build, implement and support the new National IFMS throughout the country
  • Advising the Children’s Hospital Ireland on the procurement of an enterprise ICT system to deliver the Electronic Health Record system for the new Children’s Hospital.
  • Advised Credit Unions Cloud Bank, a consortium of three credit unions, on the implementation of Ireland’s first cloud service outsourcing arrangements with a multinational cloud service provider.

Pinsent Masons LLP

Under the leadership of technology specialist Andreas Carney, Pinsent Masons LLP's team advises clients on contractual technology matters, such as outsourcing and software licensing. Clients include companies operating in sectors including financial services, manufacturing and engineering. Senior associate Dermot McGirr is also noted.

Practice head(s):

Andreas Carney

Other key lawyers:

Dermot McGirr


‘Pinsent Masons have demonstrated a willingness to partner with us. They have a commercially advantageous and transparent pricing model and operate as a part of our in-house team, so that there is no “them” or “us”. They set the engagement up as a project and reporting out on each element as required, and maintaining a dashboard of progress across all matters.’

‘Lead partner is Andreas Carney, who has been first rate at representing our needs to the various third parties, while partnering intently, and being very precise with the instructions sought. Dermot McGirr has acted as his adjunct in this matter, and has continued this excellent engagement, so that very detailed, but clear positions are explored and agreed upon as required.’

‘In our UK and Ireland business we utilise Pinsent Masons to augment our in-house legal services team and they provide a very good service to us. We had occasion, on an accelerated timetable basis to utilise their information technology practice. We found the service and support provided by Dermot McGirr and Hannah Hassell to be of a very good standard. We found their commercial nous in additional to their legal and contractual knowledge to be very useful.’

‘Pinsent Masons have a “can-do” attitude that makes them a pleasure to work with. I enjoyed working with Dermot McGirr and was impressed by his ability to assist us in meeting the tight timescales whilst shaping appropriate responses. They consistently go the extra mile.’

Key clients

Ipledge (International Philanthropy Services Centre Limited)

Encirc Limited

Arcadis NV

Work highlights

  • Advised IPledge on a number of contracts, including its cloud platform and loyalty programme contract with Loyalty Prime GmbH, as well as a reseller agreement with the same counterparty.
  • Advising Encirc on a technology transformation project to upgrade and automate its factories.
  • Assisted Arcadis with the negotiation of the renewal of its software licence with Autodesk Ireland Operations Limited (“Autodesk”) for business-critical CAD building modelling software.

Ronan Daly Jermyn

Ronan Daly Jermyn's technology practice handles work including M&A transactions and commercial contracts, both between businesses and with customers. The team is especially active in data protection work, including GDPR compliance and responses to data breaches. Gillian Keating leads the practice, in addition to heading up the firm's corporate and commercial team. Diarmaid Gavin handles commercial transactions such as outsourcing as well as GDPR compliance.

Practice head(s):

Gillian Keating

Other key lawyers:

Diarmaid Gavin


‘Great mix of people with tax, legal, general business advice all combined in a team which works well together.’

‘I find Gillian Keating and John Cuddigan extremely helpful and matter of fact when explaining complex issues. They listen to our thoughts and give good calm advice . Most of all willing to push hard if they feel you are heading in the wrong direction.’

‘The team at RDJ are very professional, responsive and work with the company understanding their size, need and resources available. ’

‘Diarmaid Gavin is our corporate partner. He is professional, supportive of company, flexible and offers a great service.’

Key clients


GTT Communications, Inc.

SensL Technologies


Trend Micro




Client Solutions


Work highlights

  • Advised on a suite of customer contract templates and on the negotiation of a significant number of high-value customer contracts with multinational entities based in the US, UK and throughout the EU.
  • Advising Abtran on its commercial contracts with customers.
  • Provided data protection advice to a multinational medical device company in relation to the proposed introduction of temperature testing for employees and visitors.