Dispute resolution: litigation in India

AZB & Partners

AZB & Partners' pan-India practice handles a wide spectrum of matters spanning various sectors, including competition litigation, joint venture disputes and international arbitration proceedings. Rajendra Barot has over 24 years of experience in commercial litigation and arbitration proceedings, including cases before the Supreme Court of India, SIAC and the ICC. Vijayendra Pratap Singh has a strong track record in international and domestic arbitration, corporate and commercial litigation and securities law matters. Aditya Vikram Bhat is a go-to partner for clients involved in cross-border litigation and arbitration proceedings. Sonali Mathur focuses on securities litigation and complex arbitration proceedings in major sectors, such as steel and renewable energy.

Other key lawyers:

Aditya Vikram Bhat; Sonali Mathur

Key clients

ASF Keystone Inc

Facebook Inc.

General Electric Baker Hughes

IHH Healthcare Berhad / Parkway Pantai Ltd.

KPMG / BSR & Associates LLP

KKR India Asset Finance Private Limited

National Stock Exchange of India Limited

Nestle India Ltd.

Orix Corporation

PWC India Pvt. Ltd. + PWC & Co.

Reserve Bank of India

Swiss Timing Ltd.

The Film & Television Producers Guild of India

Whatsapp Inc.

Yatra Online Pvt. Ltd.

91Street Media Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Represented the Reserve Bank of India in several landmark matters including a challenge to RBI’s decision on virtual currencies before the Supreme Court, and the first petition under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy (Insolvency and Liquidation Proceedings of Financial Services Providers and Application to Adjudicating Authority) Rules, 2019, in relation to a non-banking finance company.
  • Representing Whatsapp against a petition challenging the continuity of operations of its third party payments app in the UPI ecosystem before the Supreme Court.
  • Represented BSR & Associates in its defence of proceedings before the NCLT relating to IL&FS’s bankruptcy and fraudulent activities.

Cyril Amarchand Mangaldas

Cyril Amarchand Mangaldas' 'hugely experienced' team specialises in corporate and commercial disputes, spanning competition, insolvency and bankruptcy, intellectual property, white-collar crime, data privacy and various other areas. Gauri Rasgotra is known for handling high-stakes litigation, including insolvency proceedings, bankruptcy cases, corruption and contractual disputes. Among her significant ongoing mandates, Rasgotra is representing the new directors of IL&FS in proceedings relating to the recent crisis faced by the company. Shaneen Parikh acts for clients in a wide range of commercial disputes and arbitration proceedings, relating to joint venture agreements, shareholder issues, construction projects and white-collar crime.  Anuradha Mukherjee has represented private sector and public sector companies in major civil, commercial and corporate disputes throughout her 27 years in practice.

Other key lawyers:

Shaneen Parikh; Anuradha Mukherjee


‘CAM in this area has got couple of partners who stand out in understanding the client’s needs, asses the litigation issues comprehensively and appropriately guide and advise clients throughout the process.’


Work highlights

  • Representing IL&FS and its group companies in the appeal filed before the NCLAT.
  • Represented the Committee of Administrators for BCCI in a matter before the Supreme Court relating to the implementation of the recent reforms in cricket administration in India.

Economic Laws Practice

Economic Laws Practice is well-versed in commercial litigation, white-collar crime disputes, and regulatory disputes before bodies such as the Securities Appellate Tribunal and the Reserve Bank of India. Naresh Thacker's broad expertise encompasses commercial, corporate, tax and white-collar crime disputes, which he handles alongside numerous arbitration proceedings regarding infrastructure projects and M&A agreements. Ashish Prasad specialises in all types of IP disputes. Jitendra Motwani often handles indirect tax disputes and regulatory matters. Former partners MP Devnath, Vivek Sharma and associate partner Abhishek Anand, all of whom specialised in indirect tax, left the firm to join Sarvada Legal in 2019.

Practice head(s):

Naresh Thacker

Other key lawyers:

Ashish Prasad; Jitendra Motwani

Key clients

Medlife International Limited

Reliance Naval and Engineering Limited

Hindalco Industries Ltd.

Multiplex Association of India (MAI)

JSW Steel Ltd, JSW Steel (Salav) Ltd.

JSW Steel Coated Products Ltd.

Seabird Marine Pvt. Ltd.

Meridian Shipping Agency Pvt. Ltd.

Allcargo Global Logistics Ltd.

Mundra International Container Terminal Pvt. Ltd.

Forbes & Company Ltd.

Honeycomb Logistics Pvt. Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Representing Medlife International in its defence of a public interest litigation seeking a blanket ban on online sale of drugs and pharmaceutical products by e-pharma companies.
  • Representing Reliance Naval and Engineering Limited in its challenge of the termination of a contract for construction of naval warships for the Indian Navy and invocation of bank guarantees under said contract by the Ministry of Defence.
  • Represented Hindalco Industries in its application to examine whether insolvency proceedings brought against it were initiated and continued fraudulently.

J Sagar Associates

J Sagar Associates' team handles domestic and cross-border litigation, displaying particular expertise in regulatory and policy disputes, securities law, competition law, taxation and telecommunications matters. Other notable areas of strength include banking litigation, white-collar crime investigations, constitutional and administrative law disputes and international trade disputes. Amit Kapur specialises in litigation and commercial transactions in the energy, transport, communications and infrastructure sectors. Amar Gupta represents clients across India's court system, including in important disputes under the IBC framework. Advocate-on-Record Dheeraj Nair often represents clients in the Supreme Court, focusing primarily on corporate and commercial disputes, constitutional law and white-collar crime. Varghese Thomas represents Indian and foreign banks in insolvency and debt recovery mandates.

Practice head(s):

Dheeraj Nair; Varghese Thomas

Other key lawyers:

Amit Kapur; Amar Gupta

Key clients

Association of Power Producers

Coastal Gujarat Power Limited

Prism Cement Limited

Green Infra Wind Solutions Ltd

Tata Power Renewable Energy Limited

BSES Rajdhani Power Ltd & BSES Yamuna Power Ltd.

Adani Mundra Power Limited

Udupi Power Company Limited

Sasan Power Ltd

Nuziveedu Seeds Ltd

Frito-Lay North America, Inc., PepsiCo, Inc. and PepsiCo. India Holdings Private Limited

Mr. Kavinkumar Mehta





Work highlights

  • Represented the Association of Power Producers, Rattan India, GVK, GMR and Coastal Energen in the landmark judgment whereby the Supreme Court quashed the RBI 12 February 2019 circular on stressed assets.
  • Represented Emaar MGF Land Limited and its stakeholders before the Supreme Court of India in its challenge to the constitutional validity of the provisions inserted by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Second Amendment) Act, 2018 to the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016, which classed home buyers as financial creditors.
  • Representing one of the promoter groups of India’s largest private aviation companies in an international commercial arbitration under the London Court of International Arbitration Rules in relation to promoter disputes under the shareholders’ agreement.

Khaitan & Co.

Khaitan & Co LLP's team excels in competition, tax, insolvency and IP disputes, although the firm's range of work extends into various other areas of law.  Advocate on Record Sanjeev Kapoor has a wealth of experience in constitutional law, environmental law and disputes in the mining, energy and infrastructure sectors. Ajay Bhargava has established himself as a force of nature in civil, criminal and corporate litigation over more than 25 years in practice. Advocate on Record Vanita Bhargava has notable expertise in constitutional, environmental, civil and tax litigation. 'Diligent and meticulous' Nandini Khaitan serves as the external member of the Internal Complaints Committee established under The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013.

Other key lawyers:

Nandini Khaitan


‘In-depth understanding of relevant legal issues, good analytical skills, excellent court strategy and solution oriented approach.’


Key clients

Contemporary Brokers Private Limited

Mohan Motors Udyog Private Limited

Oravel Stays Private Limited

Ultratech Cement Limited

Multiplex Association of India

Mahindra & Mahindra Limited

Larsen & Toubro Limited

Hadia Abdul Latif Jameel Company Limited

Torrent Gas Private Limited

Blue Jay Finlease & Ors

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited

Work highlights

  • Successfully represented Ultratech Cement Limited in its defense of an appeal filed before the National Green Tribunal against environment clearance dated 16.07.2018 granted to M/s Clinker Grinding Unit of Ultratech Cement Limited.
  • Representing Multiplex Association of India before the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in a special leave petition challenging an order passed by the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir allowing patrons to take outside food and beverages inside multiplexes.
  • Successfully represented Oravel Stays Private Limited and its founding director in a suit before the Delhi High Court, securing an interim injunction against a disgruntled consumer who had been making malicious and defamatory statements via social media to malign the reputation of our client.

Kochhar & Co.

Kochhar & Co.'s team represents clients in a wide range of corporate and commercial and construction disputes, including consumer class actions, debt restructuring, joint venture, shareholder and bankruptcy litigation. Rohit Kochhar acts for major domestic and international companies in  corporate and white-collar crime litigation. Krishna  Vijay Singh specialises in civil and criminal litigation involving large corporates, predominantly in the infrastructure and energy sectors. Nishant Menon acts for clients  in various corporate and commercial disputes and arbitration proceedings, relating to construction contracts, oil and gas projects, technology and trade agreements. Partners Nimita Kaul and Janardhan Shetty have joined the practice from Khaitan & Co LLP and Najjar & Associates, respectively.

Other key lawyers:

Nimita Kaul; Janardhan Shetty


‘Our experience with the team at Kochhar & Co has been very satisfying. The professionalism can be felt when one interacts with their team. In the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (NCDRC), they have handled our case so well that we have made definite progress and we can see light at the end of tunnel.’

‘We have been working with K.V. Singh. He is a man of insight. His knowledge in resolving disputes is superb. He gets deep into the case to make sure that the case comes to a satisfactory conclusion for his client.’


Key clients

Actial Farmaceutica/CD Pharma


Nuance Communications

MARRIOT International

Wells Fargo Bank

Eli Lilly & Company


Cushman & Wakefield

Koritu Co. Ltd.

Hayashi Kogyo Co. Ltd.

Haldex S. A.

Mercedes Benz India

HONDA Motors

Siemens Healthcare

CRSC Research & Design Institute Group Co. Ltd.

SEACO Global Ltd.

National Bank of Fujairah

Arab Shipping and repair yard, Bahrain

WAM India Pvt. Ltd.

Gas Authority of India Limited

Work highlights

  • Representing Actial Farmaceutica (CD Pharma) in a highly complex international fraud case involving legal rights to a probiotic bacterial product.
  • Representing CRSC in the DAB, arbitration and related court proceedings against Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India (DFCCIL) as well as in the disputes with more than one hundred sub-contractors and suppliers engaged by CRSC pertaining to the development of a new railway section in India.
  • Represented Wells Fargo in two Covid-19-related cases where the Indian courts ruled that the lockdown is no excuse for a company to avoid contractual obligations to make payments.

Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas & Co

Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas & Co represents claimants and defendants in litigation across India's court system, including insolvency, fraud, competition and unfair trading disputes. Pallavi Shroff has very strong credentials in competition law disputes. Ritu Bhalla specialises in commercial and regulatory litigation, including high stakes matters before the NCLT. Nitesh Jain  has joined Trilegal.

Practice head(s):

Pallavi Shroff

Other key lawyers:

Ritu Bhalla


Trilegal's team acts for clients throughout India's courts in relation to a wide variety of disputes, including IBC proceedings, litigation arising from construction projects, and banking and finance matters. It is best known for representing large domestic and international companies in corporate and commercial disputes, and acting for clients in shareholder disputes. Ashish Bhan is particularly well known for representing telecoms and infrastructure companies in various disputes with shareholders and regulatory bodies. Tine Abraham often represents major clients in commercial disputes, such as Ricoh and Bharti Airtel. Nitesh Jain has joined from Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas & Co.

Practice head(s):

Shankh Sengupta

Other key lawyers:

Ashish Bhan; Tine Abraham

Key clients

Abu Dhabi National Energy Company PJSC (TAQA)

Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI)

UTI Asset Management

Tata Communications Limited

EIG (Mauritius) Limited

3i India Infrastructure Investments Limited (3i)

Brookfield Asset Management

Housing Development Financial Corporation Limited

Ricoh Company Limited

Patel Engineering Limited

Work highlights

  • Represented Association of Mutual Funds in India in an appeal challenging an ad-interim order which waived Indiabulls Housing Finance Limited’s redemption obligations towards its debenture holders, including several mutual funds.
  • Represented UTI Asset Management Company Limited, UTI Trustee Company Private Limited and IDBI Trusteeship Services Limited in a writ petition filed by Zee Learn Limited  before the Bombay High Court, challenging refusal to grant of moratorium in terms of the RBI Circulars dated 27 March 2020 and 23 May 2020 (RBI Circulars) in respect of redemption obligations towards its debenture holders.
  • Represented debenture trustee of Reliance Capital, Vistra ITCL, in its claim against Reliance Capital and other parties relating to transactions Reliance entered into and/or completed that resulted in the unlawful sale and/or encumbrance of the secured assets in favour of third parties.

Singh & Associates Founder – Manoj K Singh Advocates and Solicit

Singh & Associates Founder – Manoj K Singh Advocates and Solicit is highly regarded for its in-house advocacy on behalf of clients in various fields, including energy, transport and real estate. Manoj Kumar Singh, who has extensive experience in litigation throughout India's court system, continues to be instructed in prominent disputes. Recently, he successfully defended Uppal Housing Private Limited in a landmark derivative suit filed by ICP Investment (Mauritius). Gunita Pahwa is equally skilled in commercial litigation and arbitration proceedings, in which she represents domestic and international clients. Vijay Kumar Singh is noted for his track record in insolvency and bankruptcy litigation.

Practice head(s):

Manoj Kumar Singh

Other key lawyers:

Gunita Pahwa ; Vijay Kumar Singh


‘The team, led by highly experienced founding partner Manoj Kumar Singh, is well-versed and results-oriented.’

Key clients

GuarantCo Limited

M/s. Uppal Housing

M/s. ZTE Telecom India

Gwalior Bypass Projects

West Haryana Projects

Era Infrastructure

Vikram Solar

PNC Infratech

Jindal Saw

Jindal ITF

Feedback Infra

HG Infra Engineering

M/s. Dunar Foods

M/s. Jindal Fittings

M/s. JITF Urban Waste Management Services

Jindal Urban Infrastructure

M/s.  Dilip Buildcon

JITF Urban Waste Management (Jalandhar)

JITF Urban Waste Management (Bathinda)

Work highlights

  • Representing Jindal ITF Limited before the High Court of Delhi regarding a contract dispute.
  • Successfully represented PNC Infratech Limited in arbitration proceedings and subsequent dispute regarding the defendant’s challenge of the arbitral award granted in favour of PNC Infratech.
  • Represented GuarantCo in debt recovery proceedings against Calcom Cement Limited.

ALMT Legal

ALMT Legal's team is equipped to represent clients in civil and criminal disputes, spanning IP, shipping, employment, commercial and company law, real estate and family law. Sameer Tapia represents clients in corporate and family law litigation, among other areas. Prashant Popat has over 26 years' experience in corporate and commercial litigation, IP disputes and civil trials. Arvind Kamath specialises in civil, commercial and constitutional litigation, having represented clients throughout India's court system. Komal Joshi has a broad practice which encompasses aviation, shipping, maritime and criminal litigation.

Other key lawyers:

Arvind Kamath; Komal Joshi

Key clients

IAG Cargo

Ellipsis Entertainment Media LLP

R Mall Developers Pvt. Ltd.

Chios Navigation (HELLAS) Limited

Vasantdada Shetkari Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Advised an individual entrepreneur on strategising and resolving a decade old dispute with a former friend and colleague regarding shareholder disagreements relating to cross holdings in 6 companies.
  • Advising and representing IAG Cargo, a British air cargo provider, in defending a commercial suit filed against them before the Bombay High Court.
  • Represented and advised Ellipsis Entertainment Media in a dispute before the Hon’ble High Court of Bombay.

Bharucha & Partners

Bharucha & Partners team represents clients in various types of litigation, including construction, white-collar crime, environment, family and IP disputes. Throughout over four decades of legal practice, MP Bharucha has represented international and domestic companies in major corporate disputes, regulatory proceedings and arbitrations. Dp Singh, who serves as the Special Public Prosecutor for the Central Bureau of Investigation, specialises in representing high ranking officials in corruption, money laundering and securities litigation. Sneha Jasingh focuses on commercial disputes, however she is also experienced in environmental torts and insurance claims.

Practice head(s):

MP Bharucha

Other key lawyers:

DP Singh; Sneha Jasingh

Key clients

Adani Enterprises Limited

ITC Limited

Diageo plc

Edelweiss Comtrade Limited

Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited

Sony Pictures Network India Private Limited

Vodafone Idea Limited


Prysmian Cavi E Sistemi Srl

Besso Limited

Alchem International Private Limited

Daiichi Sankyo

Cowtown Infotech Services Pvt Ltd

Trafigura Global Services Pvt. Ltd.

Kalpataru Power Transmission Limited

Work highlights

  • Represented Diageo Plc in an appeal filed before the Securities Appellate Tribunal (Tribunal) against the order of the Securities Exchange Board of India directing Diageo Plc to pay additional amounts to the then minority shareholders of United Spirits Limited, under the SEBI (Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Regulations, 201.
  • Represented Besso Limited, a Lloyds placement broker, in resisting reinsurance claims by Reliance General Insurance Company Limited in relation to personal accident death insurance policies of the State Bank of India before the Bombay High Court.
  • Represented Sony Pictures in relation to the challenges to statutory instruments issued by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) on the basis that they are arbitrary, discriminatory, without application of mind and against the interest of the broadcasters and consumers.

Dhir & Dhir Associates

Dhir & Dhir Associates is well-equipped to advise clients on a wide variety of civil and commercial disputes in India. Alok Dhir, who is a qualified Insolvency Professional and Chartered Accountant, has notable expertise in disputes spanning major sectors such as infrastructure, manufacturing, and aviation. Sachin Gupta focuses on complex civil and commercial litigation, including shareholder and contractual disputes. Varsha Banerjee represents a diverse set of clients in insolvency disputes and restructuring matters.

Key clients

Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA)

Work highlights

  • Represented Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India in its appeals against a Tariff Order passed by the government.
  • Represented Amtek Group in its defence of various claims by banks and financial institutions against the company and it promoter Arvind Dham.
  • Represented Simbhaoli Sugers in various claims filed against it by lenders and banks before the Debts Recovery Tribunal in New Delhi.

DSK Legal

DSK Legal's team takes on litigation in various areas, including securities, white-collar crime, constitutional law, family law, tax and commercial disputes. Anand Desai frequently represents clients in civil and criminal cases before the Bombay High Court and the Supreme Court, in additional to acting for clients in international arbitration proceedings. Jatin Poore often advises clients on disputes arising out of corporate and commercial transactions. Kirat Singh Nagra appears before various courts, including the Supreme Court, on behalf of corporates in various sectors, including construction and retail. Partner Dinesh Pardasani joined the firm from Link Legal – India Law Services in April 2020.

Key clients


Transcon Skycity Private Limited

Mr. Salman Khan (Indian film actor) and Salman Khan Ventures

Salman Khan Ventures Private Limited

IIRF Holdings III Limited

Bharat Forge Group

Larsen & Toubro

Col. M.S. Atwal

GMR Infrastructure Ltd.

Life Insurance Corporation of India (“LIC”)

Aditya Birla Housing Finance & Aditya Birla Finance Limited

Vistra ITCL (India) Ltd.

GAIL (India) Ltd.

Power Grid Corporation of India

Hamon Research Cottrell, Inc.

Nuziveedu Seeds Ltd.

Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Limited

National Thermal Power Corporation Limited

Alstom Systems India Private Ltd.

Hitachi Rails STS

IDE Technologies Ltd.

Jindal Saw Ltd.

Ramky Group

Delhi Airport Metro Express Pvt. Ltd.

Sterlite Technologies

Kotak India Venture Fund -I

Lapis India Capital

UBM India Private Limited

IL&FS Financial services Ltd

National Bulk handling Corporation Pvt Ltd

Sahara Adventures Sports Ltd (part of Sahara Group)

Work highlights

  • Represented Col. M.S. Atwal before Gujarat High Court in writ petition proceedings, wherein stay on arbitration proceedings and termination of arbitral tribunal’s mandate was sought.
  • Represented CREDAI – MCHI (an association of leading real estate developers in Mumbai) in its application to the Supreme Court to seek relief in the extraordinary circumstances resulting from the restriction of their right to carry on business imposed due to COVID-19.
  • Representing Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam before the Haryana Electricity Regulatory Commission in the petition filed by M/s Jindal Stainless (Hisar) Limited for refund of IU (imbalance) charges under the Haryana Electricity Regulatory Commission.

Dua Associates

Dua Associates' pan-India practice handles an array of disputes on behalf of large corporates and HNW individuals, including white-collar crime, constitutional law, environmental law and IP cases. Amit Dhingra specialises in civil, commercial and constitutional law disputes in the Supreme Court and High Courts across the country. Associate Pranav Kamnani stands out for his expertise in disputes arising from construction projects.

Practice head(s):

Amit Dhingra

Other key lawyers:

Pranav Kamnani

Key clients

Helm Dungemittel GmbH and Anr

Otsuka Chemicals ( India ) Pvt Ltd

Engineers India Ltd

Work highlights

  • Advising Helm Dungemittel GmbH on matters pertaining to a contract with The State Trade Corporation of India for supply of urea in bulk.
  • Representing Otsuka Chemicals (India) Private Limited (“Otsuka”) in an arbitration initiated by the contractor arising out of a contract for construction of a GCLE project in Rajasthan.
  • Represents Engineers India Limited (“EIL”) in arbitration proceedings initiated by the contractor arising from a contract for civil, structural and water proofing works for a new office complex of EIL at Sector 16, Gurgaon, Haryana.

Hariani & Co., Advocates and Solicitors

Hariani & Co., Advocates and Solicitors represents clients before the NCLT, Bombay High Court and various other judicial fora, showing particular strength in insolvency and bankruptcy cases, environmental torts and commercial litigation. Ameet Hariani frequently acts for clients in matters before the NCLT. In addition, Hariani is known for his considerable expertise in public interest litigation and real estate disputes.

Practice head(s):

Ameet Hariani

Work highlights

  • Represented HDFC before the National Company Law Tribunal in a matter relating to challenging the constitution of the committee of creditors under the provisions of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.
  • Represented Conservation Action Trust and Bombay Environment Action Group in a Public Interest Litigation filed before the Bombay High Court challenging the decision to construct a coastal road along the western coast of Mumbai.
  • Successfully represented EEPC India in a dispute pertaining to a premises situated in Mumbai, in respect of which EEPC is a licensee.

HSA Advocates

HSA Advocates handles a broad array of disputes, include white-collar crime, civil fraud, debt recovery and regulatory proceedings, particularly in the energy sector. Hemant Sahai often represents clients in the renewable energy and electricity sectors in high-value disputes before various fora, including the Supreme Court. Sahai is also well known for his advisory work for public and private sector clients regarding policy and regulatory issues. Abhirup Dasgupta focuses on banking, corporate, civil and criminal litigation. Apoorva Misra is particularly experienced in disputes in the power, oil and gas and mining sectors. Dr Madhumita Kothari has joined the team as a partner.


‘HSA is responsive to queries and transparent around the difficulties facing clients dealing with India’s court system. Above all, they provide very good value for money in their service, with strong technical expertise and an international approach to legal services.’

‘Hemant Sahai is the lead partner that I have dealt with and he is clearly highly experienced in international litigation, with a deep knowledge of the Indian courts.’

‘I think all the individuals in the team are very hard working and serious about each and every matter assigned to them.’


Key clients

Adani Group

Acme Cleantech Solutions Pvt. Ltd.

Sembcorp Energy India Limited

Actis Group

Avantor Performance Materials

Asset Reconstruction Company India Limited

GMR Group

Renascent Power Venture Private Limited

Mytrah Energy Limited

ReNew Energy

ONGC Videsh Ltd

Flipkart India Private Limited

IL&FS Infra Asset Management Limited

Reliance Nippon Life Assets Management Limited

Everstone Capital Advisors Pvt. Ltd.

South East Uttar Pradesh Power Transmission Co. Ltd

Prampujya Solar Energy Power Limited

Ayana Energy

K T Steel Company LLP

SB Energy

Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation

TATA Group

Kalpataru Energy

SBI Global

Mumbai Port Trust

Aricent Holdings

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited

Udupi Power Corporation Ltd.

Arinsun Clean Energy Private Limited

Sterlite Investment Managers Limited

Work highlights

  • Advised Government of Gujarat on one of the largest ever restructurings of infrastructure assets in India’s history.
  • Assisting Renascent Power Venture with the acquisition of Prayagraj Power Generation Company through a resolution process undertaken by SBI/lenders under under remit of the RBI guidelines.
  • Representing Sembcorp Energy India Ltd. in disputes arising out of PPA with different states of Andhra Pradesh pursuant to the AP Reorganization Act, 2014 which led to a landmark judgment given by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India.


IndusLaw’s 'accessible and hardworking' practice has strengthened its position in the market with the recruitment of two new litigation partners: Petrushka Dasgupta from Haresh Jagtiani & Associates, and Mayank Mishra from J Sagar Associates. The team’s broad ambit of work includes commercial, insolvency, constitutional law and IP disputes. Lomesh Kiran Nidmuri is particularly experienced in shareholder disputes, contractual disputes and insolvency litigation. Amit Jajoo has a strong track record in complex civil and commercial litigation. Mayank Mishra represents clients throughout India’s court circuit, focusing mainly on commercial litigation.


‘The team conducts most of the legal work including appearing and arguing the matters by themselves, making it cost effective. They are solution oriented and the end-product is top notch.’

‘Lomesh Kiran Nidumuri is an eminent, brilliant, focused, determined and positive lawyer.’

‘Amit Jajoo is the relationship partner for my matters. He has a great legal mind and is an out of the box thinker. He is focused and gets the desired results.’


Key clients

Google India

Wipro Limited



Mahindra Group

Cadila Healthcare Ltd.


Yes Bank

Arvind Group


Electronic City Industrial Township Authority

3M India

West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation Limited and Government of West Bengal

Work highlights

  • Represented Lakshmi Vilas Bank in its defence of a commercial suit filed by Religare Finvest before the High Court of Delhi.
  • Representing Electronic City industrial township authority in proceedings before the Karnataka High court regarding the functioning of its township.
  • Representing West Bengal Industrial Devlopment and Government of West Bengal before the Supreme Court on the issue of maintainability of the challenge to an ICC Arbitral Award rendered in Paris, France regarding a shareholders agreement.

Keystone Partners

Keystone Partners focuses mainly on representing clients in disputes in the energy, technology and trade sectors, including the e-commerce space, where the firm has seen a recent growth in instructions. The team also boasts a wealth of experience in tax disputes. Pradeep Nayak handles civil and commercial litigation, including property claims and IP disputes. Sita Kapadia has more than 15 years of experience in litigation before the Bombay High Court, the City Civil Court and the NCLT. Advocate-on-Record Pritha Srikumay regularly acts for clients in Supreme Court cases.

Key clients

Uber BV

Fidelis World

Sony India Pvt. Ltd.

Betamax Ltd.

Raffles Design International India Pvt. Ltd.

Mu Sigma Inc.

GE Group of Companies

Afcons Sener LNG Construction Projects Pvt. Ltd.

Dongfang Electric Corp.

OMRON Automation Pvt. Ltd.

Shapoorji Pallonji Company Pvt. Ltd.

Vestas Wind Technology Pvt. Ltd.

Shankaranarayana Constructions Pvt. Ltd.

Campos Engineering Inc.

Air Asia India Ltd.

Britannia Industries

Hero Motorcorp Ltd.

Bajaj Auto Ltd.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Paragon Group

Work highlights

  • Representing Jammu and Kashmir People’s Conference in a petition challenging executive actions taken by the government declaring President’s Rule in the State of Jammu & Kashmir, making changes to the constitutional arrangements pertaining to the state of Jammu & Kashmir, and bifurcating the State into two union territories.
  • Representing a leading real estate developer in multiple proceedings across the Supreme Court, NCLT and arbitration, arising out of the construction of residential apartments and the insolvency of a joint developer.
  • Representing the promoters of Soham Renewable Energy India Private Limited  in oppression and mismanagement proceedings filed against the investors in the company, led by Macquarie Investors.

L&L Partners Law Offices

L&L Partners Law Offices' team represents clients in civil and commercial disputes across India, showing particular expertise in energy, consumer, corruption, defamation and competition litigation. H.S. Chandhoke has standout expertise in judicial reviews, investigations and prosecutions by the Enforcement Directorate and other regulators regarding money laundering and anti-corruption laws. Sudhir Sharma handles a wide range of commercial disputes, including joint venture and competition cases.


‘Attention to detail, excellent team work, assertiveness and perseverance.’

Key clients

JSW Steel Limited

HDFC AMC Limited

L&T Finance Limited

L&T Infra Debt Fund

L&T Infrastructure Finance Company Limited

Aditya Birla Finance Limited

Aditya Birla Sunlife AMC

India Infradebt Limited

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India LLP

Deloitte Haskins & Sells LLP

GR Infraprojects Limited

Millennium City Expressways Private Limited

IDBI Bank Limited

Work highlights

  • Successfully represented Affle in an international commercial arbitration arising out of the acquisition of an Indian start-up by a Singaporean conglomerate, and related disputes.
  • Represented Bourn Hall International in a multitude of disputes arising out of their Indian venture, including in arbitration proceedings, insolvency proceedings and criminal prosecutions.
  • Advising and representing the majority shareholder (Super-Max Mauritius and Rakesh Malhotra) in a dispute arising out of shareholders agreement, including an ongoing LCAI arbitration and litigation proceedings in various jurisdictions.

Link Legal

Link Legal has grown its litigation practice in the areas of insolvency, aviation, and electricity, supplementing its broader expertise in civil and commercial disputes across India’s court circuit. Atul Sharma specialises in corporate disputes, with an emphasis on advising clients in the infrastructure and aviation sectors. Nusrat Hassan focuses on disputes involving marquee clients based in America, Europe, and India. Milanka Chaudhury has acted for clients in high stakes disputes regarding corporate, commercial, and constitutional law, among other areas. In recent news, the firm has merged with boutique compliance and litigation practice S D Services.

Key clients

Independent Power Producers Association of India

WAPCOS Limited

Clean Sustainable Energy Pvt Ltd.

Amplus Green Power Ltd.

Delhi Aviation Fuel Facility Private Limited (DAFFPL)

Delhi International Airport Ltd (DIAL)

Axiom Cordages Limited

Indus Towers Limited

Bharti Airtel Limited

SpiceJet Limited

Vestige Marketing Pvt. Ltd.


GMR Hyderabad International Airport Ltd

Bangalore International Airport Ltd.

Vestige Ltd.

GMR Airports Ltd.

GMR Nagpur International Airports Ltd.

Emaar Hills Township Pvt. Ltd.

BDP Designs Pvt. Ltd.

Association of Healthcare Providers of India

Gems Education Pvt. Ltd.

Air Works India (Engineering) Pvt. Ltd.

Larsen & Toubro Limited

K.C. Thapar (Coal Division)

Welspun Group

Work highlights

  • Represented the members of Independent Association of India before the High Court of Allahabad in a writ petition challenging Section 35AA and 35AB of the Banking Regulation Act.
  • Represented WAPCOS before the Supreme Court of India and the Delhi High Court in a dispute arising out of the construction of the Afghan-India Friendship Dam.
  • Successfully represented Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) before the Airport Economic Regulatory Appellate Tribunal in an Appeal filed by the Federation of Indian Airlines challenging the order passed by the Airport Economic Regulatory Authority.

Majmudar & Partners

Majmudar & Partners represents Indian and multinational companies in banking disputes, IP infringement claims, injunctive actions, breach of contract claims and various other matters. Neerav Merchant’s practice encompasses all forms of disputes in the technology, manufacturing and financial services sectors. Fraser Alexander has more than 20 years of experience in banking, restructuring and insolvency disputes.

Practice head(s):

Neerav Merchant; A.K. Hirani

Other key lawyers:

Fraser Alexander

Key clients

MNP Interconnection Telecom Solutions India Pvt. Ltd.

SABIC UK Petrochemicals Limited

Axis Bank Limited

Positronic Inc.

Clariant Medical Specialties India Limited

Work highlights

  • Represented MNP Interconnection Telecom Solutions in its challenge to the regulation notified by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, slashing the applicable rates in relation to mobile number portability.
  • Representing SABIC Uk in its winding up petition filed against Punj Lloyd.
  • Representing Positronic in a dispute relating to industrial land owned by its Indian subsidiary.

Manilal Kher Ambalal & Co Advocates, Solicitors and Notary

Manilal Kher Ambalal & Co Advocates, Solicitors and Notary often represents clients in banking, insurance, debt recovery and corporate disputes. Vikram Trivedi specialises in real estate, IP and commercial law disputes. Sachin Chandarana has notable expertise in securities and tax litigation. Sunil Tilokchandani predominately represents clients in banking, real estate and private wealth litigation.

Key clients

IL&FS Financial Services Limited

Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited

ICICI Lombard General Insurance Company Limited

Aviva Life Insurance Company India Limited

Vistra ITCL

JSW Steel Limited

National Stock Exchange of India Limited

Ultratech Cement Limited

Edelweiss Asset Management Limited

ICICI Bank Limited

Mr. K. V. Kamath

Bajaj Finance Limited

Ms. Renuka Ramnath

Mr. Rajeev Bakshi

Knowledge Podium Systems Pvt. Limited

Mr. Rustom Kerawalla

ECL Finance Limited

ICICI Venture Funds Management Company Limited

Axis Bank Limited

Eduspark International Private Limited

Association of Indian Schools

Work highlights

  • Acted for IL&FS Financial Services in a series of disputes against SKIL Infrastructure Limited, resulting in securing a money decree for payment of the entire loan amount owed to the client.
  • Represented one of the country’s major private banks in its challenge to a RBI directive whereby the bank was ordered to dilute the promoters shareholding from around 30% to a maximum of 20% of its paid up voting equity capital.
  • Represented ICICI Lombard Genera Insurance in its defence of proceedings filed by ex-employees seeking damages in the High Court.

Nishith Desai Associates

Nishith Desai Associates' team, based in Mumbai, New Delhi and Singapore, specialises in securities law, IP infringement, foreign exchange laws, corruption and money laundering disputes which it handles through litigation and arbitration proceedings. Vyapak Desai frequently represents clients' claims with a multi-jurisdictional element. Sahil Kanuga handles a variety of disputes alongside complex investigations involving legislation such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Moazzam Khan specialises in corporate, civil and IP litigation across the country’s court circuit.

Key clients


ProMinent GmBH

Nabors Drilling International Limited

Boehringer Ingelheim

Swiss Re Insurance Company

Maynards Gmbh

SWAMIH Investment Fund- I

IHI Corporation, Japan

Toyo Engineering, Japan

Concept Medical Research Private Limited

Interglobe Aviation Private Limited

Infosys Private Limited

Federation of Indian airlines

Baker Hughes


Work highlights

  • Represented Internet and Mobile Association of India in its claim against the RBI, arguing that its circular prohibiting regulated entities from “providing any service in relation to virtual currencies, including those of transfer or receipt of money in accounts relating to the purchase or sale of virtual currencies” was unconstitutional.
  • Representing SWAMIH Investment Fund-I before the Supreme Court of India in relation to its debt funding into halted Amprapali real estate projects.
  • Representing FIA before the High Court for the State of Telangana in the petitions filed by GMR Hyderabad International Airport Limited, a company incorporated to design, finance, build, operate and maintain Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, Hyderabad.

Phoenix Legal

Phoenix Legal’s team represents public and private sector clients in various corporate, civil, and criminal disputes across India’s courts, including matters in the Supreme Court. Vasanth Rajasekaran frequently acts for clients in litigation relating to the enforcement of arbitral awards, in addition to handling corporate and commercial litigation. Mrinal Ojha focuses on commercial disputes in various sectors, including insurance, infrastructure, and energy.

Key clients

IFFCO Tokio General Insurance Co Ltd

Federation of Indian Airlines

Pioneer India Electronic Pvt Ltd

Builders Association of India

ARG Outlier Media Asianet News Private Limited

InterGlobe Aviation Ltd


New India Assurance Co. Limited

Calderys India Refractories Limited

Business Broadcast News Private Limited

Work highlights

  • Represented Builders Association of India before the Competition Commission of India and NCLAT in a cement cartelisation dispute initiated against twelve cement manufacturers by our client, resulting in a favourable verdict for our client.
  • Representing InterGlobe aviation in a civil appeal before the Supreme Court challenging directions of the National Green Tribunal prohibiting the spraying of disinfectants in aircrafts.
  • Represented Calderys India Refractories in a civil suit filed by Jai Balaji Industries involving claims for damages caused while undertaking the robotic shotcreting activity of the mini blast furnace of Jai Balaji.

Samvad Partners

Samvad Partners has particularly strong expertise in commercial litigation, competition law, IP and insolvency and debt recovery mandates. Also of note is the firm's commitment to public interest litigation and pro-bono legal advice, demonstrated by its role in a landmark challenge to the validity of constitutional changes to the status of Jammu and Kashmir. Poornima Hatti specialises in corporate and commercial disputes and has additional expertise in workplace harassment and anti-corruption matters. 'Invaluable to his client', Arjun Krishnan has a strong track record in competition law disputes, having handled several precedent setting cases in this field throughout his career.

Practice head(s):

Ms. Poornima Hatti

Other key lawyers:

Arjun Krishnan


‘Samvad has multiple offices across India in almost all metropolitan cities and the partners and associates in each office are highly trained and knowledgeable professionals.’

‘Arjun Krishnan’s availability, follow-up, and especially the personal attention and prompt replies have been invaluable.’


Key clients

Antrix Corporation Limited

Association for Democratic Reforms

Axis Bank Limited

Competition Commission of India

Delhivery Private Limited

Dell India Private Limited

Diageo Holdings Netherlands BV

Edelweiss Asset Reconstruction Limited

IDBI Trusteeship Services Limited

J P Morgan India Services Private Limited

Kasturi & Sons Ltd

Open Financial Technologies Pvt. Ltd., (Bank Open)

Phasorz Technologies Private Limited (Docsapp)

QD Seatoman Designs Private Limited

Society For Informal Education & Development Studies

Tata International Singapore Pte Limited

Tata Projects Ltd

Xiaomi Technology India Private Limited

Yes Bank Limited

Zetwerk Manufacturing Businesses Private Limited

Work highlights

  • Acted for Diageo in proceedings initiated against it by a consortium of banks seeking to claim rights to Diageo’s shares in now defunct Kingfisher Airlines.
  • Representing the Competition Commission of India in its defence of various claims raised by companies subject to investigations and competition law challenges, such as Amazon and Flipkart.
  • Advised and represented several retired bureaucrats in a challenge to changes made by the government to the constitutional status of Jammu and Kashmir and the implications of these amendments.

Singhania & Partners LLP

Singhania & Partners LLP specialises in disputes involving government contracts, construction projects and consulting agreements. However the firm’s offering is much broader than this and entails disputes before NCLT, SEBI and various other fora. Shilpa Shah is known for her expertise in commercial litigation, including major class actions. Vikas Goel is a go-to partner for clients involved in infrastructure and corporate disputes.

Key clients

Power Finance Corporation

National Highway Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited

JR Simplot

Nikhara Bharath Construction Co. Ltd.

State Bank of India

National Highways Authority of India

Ramky Infrastructure Ltd.

Isgec Heavy Engineering Ltd

Work highlights

  • Represented National Highways Authority of India in a dispute with Hindustan Construction Company regarding insolvency law, resulting in a successful verdict for our client.
  • Representing J.R. Simplot & Co in an appeal against a judgment granted in its favour regarding a damages/loss of exclusivity/loss of goodwill claims.
  • Represented National Highway Infrastructure Development Corporation before NCLAT in relation to bank guarantees against the biggest defaulter in the history of insolvency law in India.

Tuli & Co

Tuli & Co’s 'hardworking' team specialises in construction, investment, insolvency, commodities and insurance litigation before India’s High Courts, the Supreme Court and regulatory bodies such as the NCLT. Rajat Taimni has acted for clients in major cases involving insurance law, equity funds, investment treaties, white-collar crime and more. 'Dedicated and solution oriented' Naval Sharma has more than 10 years of experience in disputes spanning insurance, media, white-collar crime, employment and various other sectors.


‘Everyone from Tuli & Co that we have met has come across as quite sharp. Even when we approach them for general queries, we get satisfactory results.’

‘Rajat Taimni takes a no-fuss and no drama approach to managing disputes, and is thoughtful and measured.’

‘The team offers the perfect blend of consulting and litigation and comes with a solution oriented approach to problems.’

Key clients

Louis Dreyfus Commodities Private Limited

Venture Global Engineering LLC

ECGC Limited

Atradius Credito y Caucion S.A. de Seguros y Reaseguros

SABIC Asia Pacific Pte Limited

Raheja QBE General Insurance Company Limited

TATA AIG General Insurance Company Limited

The New India Assurance Company Limited

ICICI Lombard General Insurance Company Limited

IFFCO Tokio General Insurance Company Limited

Renoir Management Consulting India Private Limited

Work highlights

  • Representing GS Global Corp in a dispute which arose out of a sales contract entered into by our client, with several Indian companies, including Standard Retail Private Ltd., Integral Industries Pvt. Ltd., Vinayaga Marine Petro Ltd and Kavi Commercial Company Ltd.
  • Successfully defended Avin Data Systems in criminal proceedings initiated by a competitor alleging that our client committed data breaches.
  • Represented SABIC Asia Pacific in insolvency proceedings brought against JBG Industries Private Limited.

Advaita Legal

Advaita Legal represents clients in various types of disputes, including data protection, white-collar crime and competition litigation. In addition, the firm has standout expertise in technical disputes involving power and electricity companies before industry regulators. Shailendra Singh specialises in litigation in the energy and projects space, in which she represents Indian and multinational corporates in courts across India.

Practice head(s):

Shailendra Singh

Kachwaha & Partners

Kachwaha & Partners shows particular expertise in domestic arbitration and subsequent enforcement proceedings. Barrister Dharmendra Rautray often represents clients in litigation arising from arbitration proceedings, particularly in the construction industry. Sumeet Kachwaha stands out for his expertise in complex multi-jurisdictional disputes. Ankit Khushu frequently acts for clients in enforcement and challenge proceedings relating to arbitral awards.

Other key lawyers:

Ankit Khushu

Karanjawala & Company

Karanjawala & Company represents public and private sector clients, including media companies and government figures, in a varied range of disputes. Raian Karanjawala has handled numerous big ticket disputes throughout his career, including matters in the Supreme Court of India. Advocate on Record  Nandini Gore has a strong track record in commercial and constitutional litigation. Sandeep Kapur specialises in white-collar crime litigation.

Practice head(s):

Raian Karanjawala

Other key lawyers:

Nandini Gore; Sandeep Kapur


‘Sandeep Kapur is passionate, focused, and intellectual, which gives him an edge over many other lawyers in disputes.’ 

Key clients

ArcelorMittal India Private Limited

Tata Sons Private Ltd.

Star India Pvt. Ltd.

Twitter India

Tata Steel Limited

Tata Motors Limited

GVK Airport Holdings Ltd. & GVK EMRI

Indian Jute Mills Association

Centrotrade Minerals and Metals Inc.

Raheja Developers Ltd.

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals

Mula Education Society

DLF Ltd.

Media Contents and Communication Services (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Cardio Fitness India Pvt. Ltd

Work highlights

  • Represented Indian Jute Mills in a writ petition challenging the constitutional validity of clause three of the government Order mandating payments of wages during the period of lockdown in view of the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Represented ArcelorMittal India in a dispute before the Supreme Court relating to its intended acquisition of Essar Steel, which was a success after a two year long legal battle.
  • Represented Jack Dorsey before the High Court of Rajasthan in a dispute regarding an FIR filed by a local NGO, which was successfully quashed.

Poovayya & Co

Poovayya & Co has expertise in various areas of litigation, including white-collar crime, company law, banking disputes and civil matters. Manu Kulkarni is experienced in disputes across India's courts, including in the Supreme Court and Bombay High Court. Pallavi Smriti has a strong track record in civil, corporate and commercial litigation, with particular expertise in disputes involving media and technology clients, such as Google, YouTube and Twitter.

Practice head(s):

Manu Kulkarni

Other key lawyers:

Pallavi Smriti

Key clients

Google LLC

Youtube LLC

Twitter Inc.

AXISCADES Engineering Technologies Limited

Lifestyle International Private Limited

Volvo India Private Limited

Hero MotoCorp Limited

Bengaluru International Airport Limited

ITC Limited

Asianet News Network Private Limited

Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Private Limited

Simplex Infrastructures Limited

HDFC Bank Limited

EXIM Bank of India

Jupiter Capital Private Limited

Britannia Industries Limited

Procter & Gamble Home Products Private Limited

Bank of Baroda

ICICI Bank Limited

Mandava Holdings Private Limited

Work highlights

  • Represented the Indian subisidary of Google in an appeal seeking its discarge from criminal prosecution without trial due to defamation charges.
  • Represented the Indian subsidiary of Twitter in a challenge to the initiation of criminal proceedings by the Cyber Crime Police Station, Hyderabad, following a complaint filed by an individual.
  • Representing directors of Reliance Industries before the High Court of Karnataka in a dispute under the Companies Act, 2013.

S&R Associates

S&R Associates represents clients in litigation and arbitration involving IP infringement, securities law, white-collar crime, insolvency and bankruptcy and commercial agreements. Niti Dixit has experience in corporate and commercial litigation across India, including disputes in the Supreme Court and Delhi High Court.  Abhishek Tewari has a strong track record in litigation and arbitration, including IP and debt recovery mandates. Shahezad Kazi has standout expertise in securities litigation.

Practice head(s):

Niti Dixit

Other key lawyers:

Abhishek Tewari; Shahezad Kazi

Key clients

McDonald’s Corporation


F. Hoffmann-La Roche/ Genentech Inc.

Cairn Energy PLC

Pure S.A./ Rocksource

Hitachi, Ltd.

Kesoram Industries Limited

Nine Rivers Capital

Directors of Way2Wealth

ArcelorMittal S.A.

Asia Pragati Capfin

Jacob Ballas

Lulu And Sky Brands

Work highlights

  • Represented a major fast food chain in a shareholders disputes which took place in the Supreme Court of India, Delhi High Court and various other forums, including a London seated international arbitration.
  • Represented F Hoffman-La Roche A.G., Genetech and Rochi Products in a suit filed against the Drugs Controller General of India and various pharmaceutical companies pertaining to biosimilarity issues.
  • Represented Lulu and Sky Brands in regulatory proceedings under the Companies Act, 2013 regarding a challenge to the Government of India’s order against the client to modify its corporate name on the basis of trade mark infringement.

Clasis Law

Clasis Law represents clients in litigation and arbitration, showing particular expertise in insolvency, banking and commercial disputes. Mustafa Motiwala frequently advises clients in disputes involving real estate projects, IP and media and entertainment laws. Shwetabh Sinha is often involved in insolvency and bankruptcy disputes, whereas Varun Pareek specialises in civil and criminal litigation.


Gagrats specialises in public sector disputes, which it handles alongside competition, commercial, tax and IP litigation. Rustam Gagrat often represents clients in disputes spanning banking, energy, aviation, infrastructure and private equity.

Practice head(s):

Rustam Gagrat


LexCounsel predominantly represents clients in corporate and commercial litigation and arbitration. In addition, the firm has recently handled IP, employment, and family law disputes. Alishan Naqvee utilises his background as a corporate lawyer to represent large domestic and international companies in various cases.

Practice head(s):

Alishan Naqvee

Work highlights

  • Represented Carlsberg India in its disputes with vendors and third parties including matters before the Supreme Court, Odisha High Court and the NCLT.
  • Represented Viceroy Engineering before the Delhi High Court and in arbitration proceedings in relation to claims and counter claims by and against the Swiss counterparts regarding technical services provided for airport security screening equipment.
  • Represented Prem Nath Motors Group before the High Court of Delhi regarding the enforcement of an arbitral award granted in favour of the client.