IT and telecoms in Turkey

BTS & Partners

BTS & Partners specialises in IT and telecoms work, and advises major international clients including Amazon, Microsoft, and Apple on a continuous basis, with matters including regulatory developments and compliance, transactions, data protection, and digital transformation projects. A broad team offers a range of expertise, with senior partner Yasin Beceni well-regarded for his expertise in procurement and broad ICT law issues, regularly advising the public sector. Tuğrul Sevim specialises in IT and telecoms contracts, litigation, and e-commerce. Selin Beceni focuses on transactions, while Zeynep Ünlü advises multinational tech-focused businesses on a range of corporate matters. Batu Kınıkoğlu joined Hamzaoglu Hamzaoglu Kinikoglu Attorney Partnership.

Practice head(s):

Yasin Beceni; Tugrul Sevim; Selin Beceni; Zeynep Unlu


‘BTS has been a valued partner of ours for years. It is by far the best technology firm in Turkey. Its partners are consistently top-notch, and they understand not only the law but the legal context for complex matters facing technology companies. The advice of the firm is timely, business-focused and comprehensive.’

‘Yasin Beceni is a superb lawyer who is constantly on top of new developments in Turkey, and is generous with his time and energy. His advice is consistently business-focused and clear, and he is able to look around corners and advise clients about potential issues that may be developing.’

Key clients

Amazon Web Services (AWS)


British Telecom


Koç Group of Companies


Microsoft Corp.



Türkiye İş Bank

Shaya Kahve

Work highlights

  • Advising Amazon Web Services on a retainer basis and providing daily advice on the legislative, regulatory, and administrative developments with an effect on the sector as well as on AWS’s operations in the market.
  • Advising Apple on tracking, monitoring, reporting and analysing regulations and developments in the sector,
  • Advising Microsoft on the legislative, regulatory, policy related and administrative developments, as well as on its operations in the market.

Balcioglu Selçuk Ardiyok Keki

Balcioglu Selçuk Ardiyok Keki has expanded its share of IT industry clients, advising the likes of WPP Group and eBay. The practice specialises in complex regulatory issues, supporting clients in compliance matters as well as keeping them updated on regulatory changes in multiple jurisdictions through its Lybrio system. The team regularly advises on data protection compliance, privacy concerns, and intellectual property matters. The team is led by the highly regarded Kağan Dora, a former in-house IT lawyer with experience in regulatory compliance, disputes, and corporate governance, alongside Şahin Ardıyok, who focuses on competition and M&A. Senior associate Bora Ikiler handles telecoms and broadcasting issues.

Practice head(s):

Kağan Dora; Şahin Ardıyok

Other key lawyers:

Bora Ikiler


‘I work with this practice on data privacy compliance projects. I think that they have an established experience in this field and I strongly recommend them in this field. They are very good at keeping up with the latest developments, they are always ready with the required responses and they keep themselves up-to-date by checking the position with the relevant government bodies.’

‘Kagan Dora is a very good business partner, who is practical in the advice that he gives.’

‘Sahin Ardiyok provided thorough legal and practical advice on complex matters. Having clear expertise, he deftly helped our team navigate uncharted waters in Turkey. His approach was always responsive, thoughtful, courteous, and patient throughout our challenging project.’

Key clients

WPP Group Companies Turkey

eBay Turkey

Johnson & Johnson Turkey


Fujitsu Technology Solutions Bilişim

İpragaz A.Ş. and affiliates


FMC Turkey

Cisco International

Krea İçerik Hizmetleri ve Prodüksiyon

Parametric Technology Corporation

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Association of Turkey

BASF Turk Kimya, Mitsui & Co.

Work highlights

  • Advised WPP Group companies on the establishment and management of the data management platform.
  • Advised Johnson & Johnson on amending its data processing activities in line with local legislation related to data privacy and healthcare services.
  • Advised Here on the impacts of new geographical mapping regulations on its businesses and explained the scope and terms of the regulations.

Cigdemtekin Cakirca Aranci Law Firm

Cigdemtekin Cakirca Aranci Law Firm advises technology-focused clients on corporate issues, including transactions, strategy, and governance, alongside advising a range of Turkish businesses on data protection, privacy, and regulatory compliance matters, as well as related litigation. The firm also has a notable focus on the emerging fintech and blockchain sectors, advising a number of payment platforms and providers on launch, operations, and transactions. The team is led by experienced corporate lawyers Ayca Aranci and Tuna Çakırca, alongside the disputes-focused Ahmet Münir Yaşar.

Practice head(s):

Ayça Arancı; Tuna Çakırca; Ahmet Münir Yaşar

Key clients

Mikro-Tasarim Elektronik


ODTÜ Teknokent Yönetim

Verifone Elektronik ve Danışmanlık

eBay Turkey

Further Network

Panaroma Bilişim Teknolojileri

Edenred Turkey

WPP Group Turkey (Agencies)

ODTÜ MEMS Researcher Centre

Just Food

ODTÜ Geliştirme Vakfı Okulları

Aimtech Elektronik

Barko-Med Elektronik

Brensan Enerji Savunma

KAREL Elektronik


Work highlights

  • Advising Sebit on its sales, services, agreements, physical or digital contents of the products, offline and online contents and campaigns.
  • Advised ODTÜ Geliştirme on data protection and privacy matters.
  • Advising Verifone Turkey on IP law, as well as licensing, IT litigation, third party supplier contracts and regulatory matters.

ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law

ELIG Gürkaynak Attorneys-at-Law advises a number of major international IT companies on regulatory compliance and strategy relating to operations in Turkey, as well as representing in high-profile litigation before Turkish courts. The firm is particularly noted for its work in the e-commerce sector, including the establishment of platforms in Turkey alongside regulatory issues. The team is led by Gönenç Gürkaynak, a specialist litigator and competition expert who has represented major clients before courts, alongside regulatory and compliance-focused lawyer Ceren Yıldız, who focuses on data privacy, e-commerce, and payment services work.

Practice head(s):

Gönenç Gürkaynak; Ceren Yıldız


‘The team has an excellent reputation and experience on IT and telecommunications law.’

Key clients

Google LLC

Google Ireland



Foursquare Labs


Wikimedia Foundation

Ralph Lauren Europe

Work highlights

  • Advised Google as a financial services provider on changes to Turkish banking law.
  • Advising Google on amendments to its operations in Turkey relating to cloud services and electronic banking.
  • Advised Google on telecoms law and regulations relating to the Google Home product.

Esin Attorney Partnership, a Member of Baker McKenzie International

Esin Attorney Partnership, a Member of Baker McKenzie International is active in a wide range of IT and telecoms-related matters, including transactional, corporate, and regulatory advice to major domestic and international clients such as Bytedance and Peak. The firm focuses heavily on innovation within the industry, advising a number of start-up gaming, fintech, and legaltech companies, including hosting a LegalTech Start-Up Challenge in late 2019. İlay Yılmaz heads up the team, and advises a number of major clients on complex areas of IT law, including data protection and privacy, supported by senior associate Can Sözer.

Practice head(s):

Ilay Yilmaz

Other key lawyers:

Can Sözer

Key clients







Bytedance (TikTok )




Peak Games



Intesa Sanpaolo


Nestle Turkey

Work highlights

  • Advised Peak Games on its $1.8bn dollar acquisition by Zynga.
  • Advised Bytedance regarding use of facial recognition A.I. technology on the TikTok application.
  • Advised Salesforce on the use of its customer relations management software with telephony features in the scope of telecoms regulations.

Gün + Partners

Gün + Partners has a strong focus on the telecoms industry, offering broad knowledge of Turkish regulations to a range of international clients, alongside a growing practice in data protection compliance advice. The firm is regularly referred work by international firms, and as such assists major global social media, pharmaceuticals, and gaming companies with data protection compliance, including contentious data breaches. The team is led by Filiz Toprak Esin, who made partner in 2020, and managing associate Begüm Yavuzdoğan Okumuş, who specialises in data protection and privacy matters.

Practice head(s):

Filiz Toprak Esin; Begüm Yavuzdoğan Okumuş


‘Honest, straight talking and knowledgeable team providing easy to understand advice on complex areas for international audience. Dealing with data privacy and protection matters from afar, Gun & Partners have been excellent in helping us to understand the local (and regional) requirements and advising appropriately in relation to our business and risk appetite.’

‘Knowledgeable, beyond helpful and always willing to assist in issues and questions we raise.’

Work highlights

  • Representing a global online gaming client in data privacy matters, compliance issues and data breach notification made to the Turkish DPA.
  • Advising a global pharmaceutical company on data privacy and compliance issues, including undertakings for international transfer of personal data and a new application.
  • Represented a global social network provider in its data breach incidents in Turkey where it has been issued with an administrative fine, including legal strategy and preparing appeals.

Hamzaoglu Hamzaoglu Kinikoglu Attorney Partnership

Hamzaoglu Hamzaoglu Kinikoglu Attorney Partnership has continued to expand its profile, with new mandates from high-profile Turkish and international clients, including Borusan Holdings and Huawei. The team advises major corporates and tech companies, as well as start-ups establishing themselves in Turkey. Matters include regulatory compliance and data protection work, which is overseen by Melike Hamzaoğlu, large-scale digitisation and digital transformation projects, and the establishment of international e-commerce and other business platforms in Turkey. Yücel Hamzaoglu is highly regarded. The team welcomed Batu Kınıkoğlu who joined from BTS & Partners in November 2020.

Practice head(s):

Yücel Hamzaoğlu; Melike Hamzaoğlu


‘Hamzaoglu & Partners are experts in IT law. The team follows up global developments in this area and provides comparative legal advice. ’

‘Hamzaoglu, although very young as a firm, provides a great service in data protection related matters. They are practical; they don’t just give advice but take the time to work together in all stages of implementation of that advice. ’

‘I am very happy with the way they communicate with me and their quickness in their replies’

‘The team is skilled and experienced in all aspects of technology. They support us by giving astute, profound and practical advice.’

‘Melike has a strong legal and technical knowledge you would always want on your side. She focuses on sound solutions. Extremely professional, tenacious, and reliable.’

‘Key capabilities: always accessible, listen to the customer demands carefully and find solutions in a short time period, capability to tell everyone according to their knowledge level. Outside classic law firms, they understand the company’s needs and find suitable solutions. In addition they have huge knowledge and give lots of advice about IT systems. ’

‘Deep knowledge on their side, persuasion skills, good communicators.’

Key clients


HP Turkey

Borusan Holding

OYAK Cement Concrete Paper Group


CGV Mars Entertainment Group

Borusan Automotive


Bahçeşehir University


Work highlights

  • Advised Huawei on launching its online store in Turkey.
  • Advised Oyak Cement Concrete Paper Group Companies on its data protection compliance project.
  • Advised Bahçeşehir University on its digitalisation activities during the Covid-19 outbreak including online learning platforms.

Moroglu Arseven

Moroglu Arseven advises a range of IT and telecoms clients on corporate issues, including transactions and operations, as well as supporting a number of international corporates on data protection and IT-related issues, aided by the firm’s partnership with in-house data intelligence firm DataGuidance. Clients include e-commerce, web services, and mobile phone companies. Practice head Burcu Tuzcu Ersin advises on a range of transactional and investment matters for IT and telecoms clients, as well as a number of venture capital funds, and E. Seyfi Moroğlu handles financing and contractual matters.

Practice head(s):

Burcu Tuzcu Ersin

Other key lawyers:

E. Seyfi Moroğlu


‘Knowledgeable in their areas, able to communicate IP related matters in a simple way for us to understand. Commercial law practice is also strong. Associates as well as partners demonstrated deep knowledge and provided valuable and actionable recommendations. The partner team has shown close interest, joining every meeting with us. ’

‘The level of interest we get from partner level stood out from the other law firms we worked with before.’


Paksoy combines a full-service corporate offering to clients in the IT, innovation technology, and telecoms sectors with dedicated expertise in each industry, encompassing regulatory issues, legislation, and corporate strategy. The firm advises clients including BAE Systems, WarnerMedia, and BeIN on matters including data protection, IT projects and procurement, regulatory frameworks, and tech M&A. The team is led jointly by Stéphanie Beghe Sönmez, who combines M&A experience with data protection and intellectual property expertise, and Sera Somay, who handles IT and fintech matters.

Practice head(s):

Stéphanie Beghe Sönmez; Sera Somay


‘They are very knowledgeable about applicable law, very responsive and provide good legal advice and are not very expensive. They speak fluent English, which makes it easier for their clients who do not speak Turkish.’

Key clients

BAE Systems Turkey

beIN Media


Burloak Technologies

Canada Goose




Good Job Games




Telus International



Work highlights

  • Advised Getir on its $38m Series A funding round, subscribed by a group of investors including Silicon Valley venture capitalist Michael Moritz
  • Advised Huawei on a wide range of IT and data protection matters.
  • Advised Telus International on the Turkish aspect of its $1bn acquisition of Competence Call Center.

ADMD/Mavioglu & Alkan Law Office

ADMD/Mavioglu & Alkan Law Office advises a wide range of tech-focused companies, including telecoms providers, software developers, and internet service providers. Electronic media is also an area of focus for the firm. Matters include corporate financing and transactional advice, cybersecurity and intellectual property, and assistance with aspects of Turkish internet law. The team is led by Orhan Yavuz Mavioğlu and Kerim Gurlemez, who both focus on disputes and corporate governance advice.

Practice head(s):

Orhan Yavuz Mavioglu; Kerim Gurlemez

Key clients

Accurate Digital



Jato Dynamics


National Instruments

Telecom Italia Sparkle

Aksan Law Firm

Aksan Law Firm is a good choice for tech-focused start-ups and growth companies in a number of areas, including e-commerce, biotechnology, and IT, advising on a range of transactional and financing matters, with particular strength in handling angel investments and loan financing arrangements, alongside share issues and capital increases. The team is led by Melih Aksan and Oktay Şener.

Practice head(s):

Melih Aksan; Oktay Şener


‘Melih Aksan is someone who always thinks outside the box and provided us with creative yet well grounded advice in the face of complex matters. He is also an extremely well known figure in the technology field, an authority, which helps us in our negotiations with other actors.

Key clients

Paket Mutfak

Kassa Mobil

Ynot Partners

Diffusion Capital Fund Cooperatief

Kolay Randevu İnternet

Visiomechanics Endüstriyel

İstanbul Technical University

AA Plus Danışmanlık

Scoutium Futbol Teknolojileri

Work highlights

  • Advising Livzym on a loan-to-investment, payable through the conversion of the debt into stock.
  • Advising Augmency on the receipt of an investment and a related share capital increase.
  • Advised Pafet Mutfak on its first investment from a group of angel investors.

Ersoy Bilgehan Lawyers & Consultants

Ersoy Bilgehan Lawyers & Consultants is a reliable adviser to domestic and international businesses in the media, IT, telecoms, and retail sectors on a range of regulatory compliance issues relating to data protection, Turkish IT law, and intellectual property. Clients include major entities such as China Telecom, and global video game and leisure brands. The team is led by senior corporate partner Zihni Bilgehan.

Practice head(s):

Zihni Bilgehan


‘The team is extremely skillful when it comes to technical capabilities.

‘We mostly worked with Mr. Ozer. He has the confidence and ability to solve any problems related to our projects with his knowledge and exceptional communications skills. He is an analytical thinker and can draw logical and reasonable conclusions and make assumptions even from very limited information given by our customers. His ability to research quickly and effectively is very essential to understand our customer.’

‘We have the privilege of working with the firm for our compliance preparations for the GDPR equivalent laws in Turkey. They helped us prepare for the long and tedious compliance issues and also provided insight on how the law might effect a company such as ours. Their communication strategy and delivery was exceptional and very professional.’

‘Customized opinion, strong team, very good back-up and info sharing within the team members, seamless customer experience.’

‘Very professional, positive, challenging the legislation depending on the specific facts and circumstances surrounding the issue.’

‘The team is patient and professional. More importantly, their advice and explanation of the local regulation is quite clear.’

Key clients

Alarko Holding

Ali Raif Ilac Sanayi

CD Media Turkey

China Telecom

Dialog Semiconductor


Hapag Lloyd

Humanz AI

Turknet İletişim Hizmetleri

Meeting Point Turkey

Neler Bedava

Zenith Ship Management

Work highlights

  • Advised China Telecom on telecoms licences in Turkey, as well as day-to-day matters concerning its local branch and subsidiary.
  • Represented a global leisure brand in a criminal proceeding initiated against one of its properties in Turkey due to the alleged unlawful processing of a customer’s personal data and in responding to a multi-jurisdictional data subject access request from the same customer.
  • Advised one of the largest game developers in the world on the data protection requirements under Turkish law.


Gökçe has expertise in intellectual property, digital media, internet, and data protection issues, advising a number of tech-focused clients including video game companies and developers, start-ups, and online retailers on a range of corporate and regulatory matters. The firm also acts for international hospitality clients on Turkish operations and data protection. The team's main strength lies in M&A and venture capital investments, with practice heads Görkem Gökçe and Ali Paslı both experienced transactional counsels. M. Bedii Kaya joined as a co-head in late 2020, specialising in cybersecurity and privacy work.

Practice head(s):

Görkem Gökçe; Ali Paslı. M. Bedii Kaya


‘Considering that the sector we have been working in needs a specialization, a technical and sectoral know how; they follow the developments closely and keep up with the novelties. They do not only have full knowledge on legal matters, they also have a level of knowledge very near to us on the commercial and technical side. They are eager and hypercritical, we like that they have the same enthusiasm that we have.’

‘Gokce offers consultancy services on all aspects of day-to-day legal matters, in particular technology related issues. The team offers guidance on strategies for regulatory compliance and prepares all necessary legal documentation needed to comply with the relevant legislation. The team also helps us to draft and review the agreements and we refer to their negotiation skills especially from an IT law perspective. ’

‘Gokce provides advice on all sorts of day-to-day legal issues, in particular on technology related consultancy. Gokce has a vast knowledge and wide ranging understanding of technology matters. Gokce, with its deep knowledge of the mobile game market, is excellent in tackling legal issues in an accurate, practical and business-friendly manner.’

Key clients

Hilton Worldwide Holdings


Sovos Foriba

Gram Games










Gezi Hotel Bosphorus




Work highlights

  • Advised Hilton Worldwide’s hotels in Turkey on Turkish data protection law and GDPR.
  • Advised the founders of Sovos Foriba on their share sale to Sovos.
  • Advising Onedio on a range of matters, including all of its relations to the digital world, preparation of electronic contracts and providing all necessary consultancy services.

Güner Law Office

Burçak Kurt Biçer leads the team at Güner Law Office, which advises corporate and tech clients including HTC, Microsoft, and Ferro Corporation on Turkish regulatory compliance issues. In particular, the firm supports clients with continuous data protection compliance, including applications to the Turkish Data Controller. Additionally, the practice advises tech-focused clients on corporate and commercial considerations.

Practice head(s):

Burçak Kurt Biçer


‘One of the few teams in Turkey with real data protection expertise.’

‘Burcak Kurt Bicer is one of the few lawyers in Turkey with real data protection expertise. She is practical and a pleasure to work with.’

Key clients

Fox Network Group and Fox Turkey

Microsoft Mobile Turkey (formerly Nokia Turkey)



Ferro Corporation

Suez WTS

Konecranes OJY

Discovery Communications

Forcepoint Holdings International, Forcepoint Turkey Siber Güvenlik Hizmetleri

Endemol Shine Group

Work highlights

  • Advising Ferro Corporation and Ferro Turkey on their compliance with Turkish Personal Data Protection legislation in Turkey and registration with the Data Controllers’ Registry System.
  • Providing ongoing legal advice to Konecranes and its parent companies abroad on their registration with the Data Controllers’ Registry System.
  • Advising ICANN on day-to-day legal matters in Turkey as well as on its compliance with Turkish Personal Data Protection legislation and its registration with the Data Controllers’ Registry System.

Gen Temizer Ozer

Gen Temizer Ozer is active in tech and IT-focused transactional work, regularly acting for private equity and venture capital investors, as well as supporting IT-focused companies with corporate and regulatory compliance matters. The firm has a particular focus on emerging companies and start-ups, advising on funding rounds and takeovers. The team is led by Edmund Emre Özer, an experienced transactional and investments counsel.

Practice head(s):

Edmund Emre Özer


‘Very knowledgeable and hands on team with excellent know-how in local regulations and practice, we regularly instruct them on IT and telecoms regulatory matters ’

‘Emre Edmund Ozer is a key contact for us and provides a vital link due to his international background.’


Key clients

Amadeus IT


Aslanoba Capital

Dahua Technology



Pera Capital





Work highlights

  • Advised Vivense and its founder Kemal Erol on a $130m investment by Actera.
  • Acted for Ebay on its entry into a master sale agreement with
  • Advised Earlybird on various seed and Series A funding rounds in various IT and technology businesses including Obilet, Picus, Apsiyon, and Payhaw.

Hergüner Bilgen Özeke

Hergüner Bilgen Özeke combines IT-focused advice to domestic and multinational corporate clients with corporate transactional and governance support for clients in the technology and telecoms industries, such as Telia, Sony, and Hitachi. Matters include data protection compliance and the drafting of policies, regulatory support and disputes, and advice on tech M&A transactions. The team is led by corporate partners Kayra ÜçerUfuk Yalçın, and Deniz Tuncel.

Practice head(s):

Kayra Üçer; Ufuk Yalçın; Deniz Tuncel

Key clients

Scientific Games International

Telia Company


CCC Information Services

Volkswagen AG & Volkswagen Turkey

OBSS Bilişim Bilgisaya

Sompo International

Hitachi Kokusai Electric

Sony Pictures Entertainment


St Martins

Work highlights

  • Advised Telia Company, along with Turkcell Iletisim Hizmetleri, on an agreement to acquire Turkcell’s 41.45% stake in Fintur.
  • Drafted an end-user license agreement for OBSS Bilişim Bilgisayar, covering the limitation of liability, high-risk activities, restricted use, and the protection of IP rights and trade secrets.
  • Advised Volkswagen and Volkswagen Turkey on Turkish data protection law and assisted both companies in converting the output from their data mapping exercise to the data processing inventory format of the Turkish DPA.

Pelister Atayilmaz Enkur Law Office

Pelister Atayilmaz Enkur Law Office advises domestic and international corporates on compliance with Turkish data law, including data protection strategy, responding to data breaches, and risk management. The firm also supports businesses engaged in IT projects. The practice is led by corporate partners Emre AtayılmazGökhan Enkür, and Kerim Pelister, who act for clients in a variety of industries, including retail, energy, and tech innovation.

Practice head(s):

Emre Atayilmaz; Gokhan Enkur; Kerim Pelister


We are working closely with Gokhan Enkur. We are very happy with his services.’

Easy to approach, quick and accurate responses.

Key clients

United Textiles Company (UTG)


Ulusal Factoring



Cigna (Pension and Life)



Ralph Lauren

Pine Bridge Investments

Lockton Overseas Limited



Komet Noatum

Elton Group

Comparex/ Dataserv




Work highlights

  • Advised United Textiles Company on its compliance programme with respect to the new Turkish Data Protection Act.
  • Advised Datalogic on the scope of a compliance project covering the Turkish branch and European subsidiaries of the client.
  • Advised Almodo on its compliance programme with respect to the new Turkish Data Protection Act.


TURUNÇ has a good record in technology sector M&A, advising international corporates, venture capital, and private equity funds on acquisitions and investments into Turkish and Turkish-headquartered technology companies. The team also advises tech clients on IT projects and regulatory issues. The team is led by Kerem Turunç, an experienced transactional counsel.

Practice head(s):

Kerem Turunç

Key clients

Riverwood Capital


Vinci Venture Capital


Micro Focus



Taxim Capital



Wyndham Destinations

Work highlights

  • Advised Riverwood Capital on its investment into Insider, a growth management platform.
  • Advised Micro Focus on its acquisition of ATAR Labs, a cybersecurity solutions company.
  • Advised Peoplise, a human resources platform, on its majority sale to Logo Software.

Yazicioglu Attorneys at Law

Yazicioglu Attorneys at Law advises on data protection compliance, contentious data breach issues, and commercial considerations for businesses in the TMT sector.  Clients include major international retailers, both physical and online. The team is led by Bora Yazıcıoğlu, who specialises in data protection issues, continuously advising key clients on compliance and data security.

Practice head(s):

Bora Yazıcıoğlu


‘The law firm was well informed about the possible risks and best practices related to the particular disputes. They have a great experience in the retail field which makes it easier to understand our company’s needs and mindset.’

Key clients




Braas Monier Building Group

Expedia Group



Adel/Faber Castel

Mayhoola Group Companies

Boyner Group Companies

Mavi Jeans

Work highlights

  • Advising Danone on its Turkish Data Protection Compliance project.
  • Advising Isuzu on data protection and commercial electronic matters.
  • Assisted a global sportswear and gear company with making a data breach notification to Turkish Data Protection Authority.