Transport in Israel

FISCHER (FBC & Co.)

FISCHER (FBC & Co.)'s practice covers every area of transport in Israel and handles corporate transactions, commercial agreements and a wide variety of disputes. Recent highlights include representing Volvo and Renault in a high-value class action, and advising Hadarom Container Terminal on a $526m transaction facilitating the design, construction and maintenance of Southport Terminal at Ashdod Seaport. Shirly Kazir's experience in the aviation and maritime sectors is truly outstanding and includes handling major commercial transactions and complex disputes. Gilad Winkler often advises on major rail and road projects, working closely with fellow partner Hagit Horowitz.

Practice head(s):

Shirly Kazir

Other key lawyers:

Gilad Winkler; Hagit Horowitz; Yoram Bonen; Liron Cohen

Testimonials

‘This is a cutting edge, in depth and agile service. The team is available and ready to respond at all times. They provide a one-stop shop which is tailored to your requirements.’

‘Shirly Kazir’s knowledge of the airline industry and contacts within this specific area are extensive and profound. Her interpretation of the law and the out of the box thinking she applies grants a tremendous advantage to customers and allows them better representation when they are legally exposed, which is a common phenomenon in the airline industry.’

Key clients

Virgin Atlantic

DHL Express (Israel) Ltd.

Talma Travel & Tours Ltd.

Swiss International Airlines

Hyundai Motor Company

Kia Motor Company

Newrest Group Holding SA

Air Europa

Air France

Arkia Airlines

Association of Car Importers in Israel

Austrian Airlines

British Airways PLC

Colmobil Ltd.

Delta Airlines

easyJet

El Al Airlines

Harel Insurance Company

Iberia

Deutsche Lufthansa

Wizz Air

Egged Holding Ltd.

Shapir Civil and Marine Engineering Ltd

Shikun & Binui Ltd.

Volvo

Renault

Work highlights

  • Representing Líneas Aéreas, S.A.U., Transavia the Netherlands and Vueling Airlines – in the defence of class actions filed against them regarding their global refund policy during the coronavirus outbreak.
  • Representation of the Association of Car Importers in Israel in a wide range of regulatory proceedings pertaining to all aspects of the car industry in Israel, including before the Ministry of Transportation and the Knesset.
  • Representing Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motor Company in defending various class action proceedings regarding alleged defects in their vehicles.

Herzog Fox & Neeman

Herzog Fox & Neeman's team focuses predominantly on the aviation industry, where it advises clients on various transactions, including acquisition, financing and leasing agreements. In addition, the team assists shipping companies with financing and restructuring matters. Alan Sacks acts for aircraft manufacturers, banks and financial institutions in connection with aircraft acquisitions and Mark Phillips advises on the financing of large transport and infrastructure projects. Adam Eytan also has strong credentials in project finance transactions.

Practice head(s):

Alan Sacks; Mark Phillips

Other key lawyers:

Adam Eytan; Ben Kanter

Key clients

Aviation Capital Group

MG Aviation

AVIC International Leasing Co.

Falko Group

Fortress Investment Group

Engine Lease Finance Corporation

Boeing

Rolls Royce

Airbus Bank

Development Bank of Japan

ING Bank

Macquarie Air Finance

BNP Paribas

Bank of America Leasing Ireland Co

PK AirFinance

UK Export Finance

Marsh

Work highlights

  • Advised Development Bank of Japan, ING Bank and other financial Institutions on the financing of El Al’s Dreamliner fleet.
  • Advised AVIC International Leasing regarding a sale and leaseback arrangement with El Al for Boeing 777 Aircraft.
  • Advised Fortress on the purchase of Boeing Aircraft and Rolls Royce engines from Arkia.

Naschitz, Brandes, Amir & Co.

Naschitz, Brandes, Amir & Co.'s practice specialises in aviation and shipping law, with particular strength in aviation class actions, personal injury claims and maritime insurance. Currently, the firm is defending Lufthansa Group in complex class actions regarding alleged breaches of the Consumer Protection Act and Aviation Services Act. Ilan Winder leads the team's work in the shipping and aviation sectors and is equally proficient in contentious and non-contentious matters. Senior associates Merav Nur and Omer Guy are also key members of the practice.

Practice head(s):

Ilan Winder

Other key lawyers:

Merav Nur; Omer Guy

Key clients

Ashdod Port

Austrian Airlines

Noble Energy Mediterranean

El Al Israeli Airlines

LOT Polish Airlines

Lufthansa Group

RCL Cruises

Shipco Transport

Swissport Israel

Ukraine International Airlines

Rwandair

Smartwings A.S.

Work highlights

  • Representing Lufthansa in a class action relating to compensation according to Aviation Services law.
  • Represented El Al in its defence of a subrogation claim of the National Insurance Institute, resulting in successful dismissal of the claim.
  • Representing UIA in a claim by the Israeli Consumer Council for refunds of cancelled flights due to Covid-19.

S. Friedman & Co. Advocates & Notaries

S. Friedman & Co. Advocates & Notaries'well connected and respected' team has leading expertise in the maritime industry, demonstrated by its role in numerous precedent-setting shipping disputes. Besides litigation, the team assists shipping companies with joint ventures, charter agreements and various other commercial arrangements. In addition, the firm is known for advising clients on the acquisition, financing and leasing of aircraft. Amir Cohen-Dor has over 30 years of experience in maritime law, with a special focus on protecting carriers and vessels' interests. 'Excellent negotiator and tactician' Michael Safran stands out for his strong reputation in maritime litigation.

Practice head(s):

Amir Cohen-Dor

Other key lawyers:

Michael Safran; Aviva Zigmond; Nitzan Nishlis

Testimonials

‘S. Friedman are the most professional and trustworthy law firm in shipping, transport and maritime infrastructure. They are always available and willing to assist.’

‘Amir Cohen-Dor is, in my opinion, the leading maritime lawyer in Israel. Always available, trustworthy and innovative. Michael Safran is also, in my opinion, one of the leading maritime S&P lawyers.’

‘Their strength is in their professionalism, commitment, availability and creativity. ’

‘Michael Safran is very skilled. His wide experience spans complicated structured finance transactions to asset-backed shipping transactions to corporate finance.’ 

Key clients

Zim Integrated Shipping Services Ltd.

Maersk Israel Ltd.

Portline HK

Terminal Investment Limited Sàrl

M. Dizengoff & Co (P&I Representatives) Ltd.

Israel Shipyards Ltd.

The Israel Chamber of Shipping

COSCO Shipping Holdings Co., Ltd.

Orient Overseas Container Line Ltd.

Orient Overseas (International) Limited

Allalouf & Co. Shipping Ltd.

Gal Marine Ltd.

Overseas Commerce Ltd.

The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Haifa and the North

Dead Sea Works

The National Coal Supply Corp. Ltd.

Israel Railways Corporation Ltd.

Yang Ming

The One

HMM

Work highlights

  • Advised Zim Integrated Shipping Services on a first of its kind receivables factoring transaction with one of Israel’s largest banks.
  • Acted for P&I representatives in a precedent-setting admiralty court case, which fully supported the position that a foreign marine insurer has a right of subrogation in Israel.
  • Acted for P&I representatives in a Supreme Court precedent dealing with the statute of limitations according to the rule set forth in the Hague-Visby Rules which is entrenched in the Carriage of Goods by Sea Ordinance.

Harris & Co. Maritime Law Office

Harris & Co. Maritime Law Office specialises in shipping disputes throughout Israel's court system, including matters before the Supreme Court. It also has a strong track record assisting shipping clients with commercial agreements. John Harris and Yoav Harris, who jointly head the practice, have decades of experience in all forms of shipping litigation. Associate Liad Averbach is also a key member of the team.

Practice head(s):

John Harris; Yoav Harris 

Other key lawyers:

Liad Averbach

S. Horowitz & Co

S. Horowitz & Co's 'very bright team' is particularly active in the aviation industry, however it has additional experience of the shipping, railway and automobile sectors. Its range of services includes representing aviation clients in major class actions, executing commercial agreements and handling financing arrangements. Hugh Kowarsky advises various clients engaged in the aviation industry on contractual and regulatory issues. Eyal Doron, who is qualified in Israel and New York, specialises in complex commercial litigation.

Practice head(s):

Hugh Kowarsky; Eyal Doron

Other key lawyers:

Benjamin Sheffer; Ron Libson

Testimonials

‘Business tailored and strategic advice.’ 

‘Incredibly responsive, very bright and hard-working with strong expertise in commercial law and aviation law. ’

Key clients

Ryanair DAC

British Airways

Bank Hapoalim Ltd.

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.

Honda Motor Company Ltd.

Jerusalem Light Rail Transit Network

Blue Air Aviation S.A.

Toyota Motor Corporation

Aston Martin Lagonda Limited

Marsh Ltd.

Bank Leumi Ltd.

Derech Eretz Highways (1997) Ltd.

Shapir Civil and Marine Engineering Ltd.

SC Western Segment’s Construction L.P.

Minrav Holdings Ltd.

Oron Group Holdings & Investments Ltd.

Shikun & Binui

Work highlights

  • Represented Ryanair DAC in a motion to certify a NIS102m class action concerning the booking process on its website.
  • Advised a consortium (Jerusalem Light Rail Transit Network) on submitting a bid for a NIS4.5bn project including the financing, design, construction, operation, maintenance and transfer to the state, of the Jerusalem light rail transit network.
  • Representing Toyota and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles in a motion to certify a NIS100m class action concerning the alleged failure to perform a recall in Israel of vehicles imported to Israel by way of parallel or private import.

AYR – Amar Reiter Jeanne Shochatovitch & Co

AYR – Amar Reiter Jeanne Shochatovitch & Co is active in all areas of transport and advises clients on various matters, including tenders, financing, licensing and commercial contracts with suppliers. It is also well known for representing clients in class actions, predominantly in the automobile sector.  Yoav Caspi specialises in M&A and financing transactions. Yaron Reiter is a go-to name for transport clients involved in commercial litigation.

Practice head(s):

Yoav Caspi; Yaron Reiter; Ram Jeanne

Other key lawyers:

Assaf Lapid

Key clients

Dan Public Transportation

Kavim Public Transportation LTD.

El Al Israel Airlines Ltd.

Mayer Group

Keshser Rent A Car Ltd.

Merkavim Transportation Technologies

Auto Center Limited Partnership

Shlomo Sixt Group

Aero Handling Ltd.

FSM Ground Services

Shafir Group

Danya Cebus and China Civil joint venture

Ahuzot Ha’chof

Morgan Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Representing aviation company Silon in a shareholder dispute between it and Arkia.
  • Advising a joint venture between Danya Cebus and China Civil on its state-mandated role to build a part of the Tel Aviv light rail.
  • Advising FSM Ground Services on all commercial and corporate matters, as well as representing the company in class actions and litigation proceedings.

Erdinast Ben Nathan Toledano & Co. with Hamburger Evron

Erdinast Ben Nathan Toledano & Co. with Hamburger Evron has unique expertise in transport matters involving the use of new technology, with a particular focus on matters regarding railway and highway projects. Highlights included advising Ta-avura Holdings on a public hearing on the Ministry of Energy's White Paper concerning a masterplan for the Israeli energy sector. Doni Toledano handles a range of corporate transactions in the transport sector.

Practice head(s):

Doni Toledano

Other key lawyers:

Nadav Olgan;

Key clients

Mobileye Vision Technologies Ltd.

Carasso Motors Ltd.

Egged Ta’avura

Mediterranean Car Agency

Arbe Robotics Ltd.

Tene Investment Fund

LeddarTech Inc.

Fortellix Ltd.

Haifa Municipality

Metropoline – Public Transport Ltd.

Afcon Electric Transportation Ltd.

Maman Cargo Terminals Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Advising Mobileye on the innovative and first of its kind joint venture for the launch of a commercial self-driving ride-hailing service in Israel, with the support of the government of Israel.
  • Advised Carasso Motors Ltd. on its acquisition of the entire share capital of Cal Auto Projects Ltd., and of several other entities operating as a group.
  • Represented Arbe Robotics Ltd. on its Series B financing round of $32m, from a group of VCs.

Goldfarb Seligman & Co.

Goldfarb Seligman & Co.'s transport team is often sought out by international corporations in connection with large government tenders in Israel, including major railway projects across Tel Aviv. It is also highly regarded for its expertise in litigation involving vehicle manufacturers and its comprehensive advice on infrastructure projects. Rami Sofer frequently assists government entities and private companies with various infrastructure projects related to the transport sector, including BOT and PFI developments.

Practice head(s):

Rami Sofer

Key clients

Netivei Ayalon Ltd.

Israel Railways Ltd.

Cross Israel Highway Ltd.

PJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines

El Al Israel Airlines Ltd.

Jaguar Land Rover Limited

Ford Motor Company

United Technologies Corporation

Bird Rides, Inc.

Carasso Motors Ltd.

S. Shlomo Vehicle Ltd.

Eldan Transportation Ltd.

Albar Mimunit Services Ltd.

S. Shlomo Holdings Ltd.

David Lubinski Ltd.

Colmobil Group

Mayer’s Cars and Trucks Ltd.

Mediterranean Car Agency Ltd.

Delek Motors Ltd.

Max Trucks and Buses Ltd.

Avnir Car Company Ltd.

The Shlomo Group

Work highlights

  • Advising Ayalon Highways on numerous large-scale transport and infrastructure projects, including Rapid City, Fast Lanes and Ofnidan.
  • Advised Bird Rides on its launch of operations in Israel, providing consultation with respect to all legal aspects of the launch.
  • Advising PJSC Aeroflot on various legal matters, including litigation proceedings and class actions.

Gornitzky & Co.

Gornitzky & Co. advises clients active in the areas of aviation, automobile and public transport on a wide range of corporate transactions and commercial arrangements. The team is also experienced in litigation, including class actions, and matters at the intersection between transport and innovative technology. Kfir Yadgar specialises in commercial litigation and M&A transactions. Yiftah Farber largely focuses on public tenders and financing arrangements underpinning transport projects.

Practice head(s):

Kfir Yadgar; Yiftah Farber; Avi Pelossof

Other key lawyers:

Sagit Ohana-Livne; Noa Schweitzer Amar

Key clients

Dan Public Transportation Company Ltd.

Eviation Aircraft Ltd.

Mediterranean Car Agency Ltd.

Shikun & Binui Ltd. and Shikun & Binui – Northern Routes Ltd.

Toyota AI Ventures and Toyota Research Institute

Pandan Advanced Transportation Ltd.

Ford Motor Company

Sharbat Brothers Group

Gauzy Ltd.

Israel Railways Corporation Ltd.

Nahor Netivey Tahbura Ltd.

Dan South Transportation (2015) Ltd.

Dan Beer Sheva Transportation (2016) Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Advising Dan Public Transportation Company Ltd on the process of bringing in a new strategic investor.
  • Advising Dan Public Transportation Company on the framework of an agreement signed between it and VIA Mobility Israel regarding the operation of a brand new type of public transport system in Israel.
  • Advised  Eviation Aircraft Ltd., an Israeli start-up, on obtaining investment from Clermont Energy.

Gottlieb Gera & Co. Advocates

Gottlieb Gera & Co. Advocates focuses predominantly on aviation finance and leasing transactions, however it is also well equipped to advise clients in the rail and automobile industries on financing arrangements. Charles Gottlieb  has over 30 years of experience in aviation finance and handles various corporate transactions in the transport sector.

Ilan Orly & Co. Law Firm

Transport boutique Ilan Orly & Co. Law Firm exclusively handles maritime and aviation law mandates. Its expertise in the shipping industry is particularly strong, spanning sale and purchase transactions, shipbuilding, ship finance and marine insurance. Ilan Orly is the firm's key contact for shipping law, and Eran Shellac is the key expert in the firm's burgeoning yachts practice.

Leshem-Kipperman, Law Offices & Notary

Leshem-Kipperman, Law Offices & Notary focuses primarily on insurance litigation in aviation and shipping industries. Its range of work includes product liability, cargo claims and admiralty disputes. On the transactional side, it is well equipped to handle finance arrangement and sale and purchase transactions. Moshe Leshem and Irit Leshem Kipperman lead the team.

Meitar law offices

Meitar Law Offices acts for clients across the transport industry on a variety of transactions and in disputes, including major class actions involving large international companies. Its expertise in the aviation sector is especially strong, not only in relation to financing transactions but also in high-stakes litigation. Alon Gellert's broad practice encompasses contentious and non-contentious work in the transport sector, including tender proceedings for major projects. Yankie Feffer is very experienced in litigation involving constitutional and administrative law.

Practice head(s):

Alon Gellert; Yankie Pfeffer

Other key lawyers:

Jonathan Finklestone; Tani Zahavi; Assaf Naveh

Testimonials

‘The team is diverse and capable of giving the best legal advice in every field.’

Key clients

Korean Airlines

Volkswagen Group

Bon Tour

Kavim

MAN Truck and Bus

Energean

Hainan Airlines

Israeli Drone Alliance

AerCap

CAL Cargo

Sightec

BBAM

Renault group

Air Canada

Yang Ming Marine Transport Corporation

Sichuan Airlines

Shapir Civil & Marine Engineering Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Advising Highway 6 on the development of an extension to the cross Israel highway project.
  • Defending Volkswagen AG and Audi AG in nine class actions concerning the EA 189 diesel engine claims.
  • Advising Air Canada on various matters, including regularising the legal status of senior executives and representatives of the company in Israel.

Salomon, Lipschütz & Co.

Salomon, Lipschütz & Co. is equally experienced in litigation and commercial agreements in the transport sector, with particular strength in class actions. In addition, the team has distinguished itself through its central role in advising transport companies on the process of franchising their operations. Amit Gur is particularly invested in the public transport sector, and testament to this is his role as the legal adviser to the Forum of Private Public Transport Companies in Israel.

Practice head(s):

Amit Gur

Other key lawyers:

Merav Arad

Key clients

Haifa Port

Nateev Express – Public Transportation Ltd.

Kavim Public Transport Ltd.

Afikim – Public Transportation Ltd.

Metropoline Public Transport Ltd.

Egged Taavura

Tour Bus Ltd

Nazareth Transport & Tourism Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Advising Haifa Port Company, a government-owned company that operates Israel’s largest and leading port, on all aspects of its operations.
  • Advising the Public Transportation Private Companies Forum on the formulation of various tenders, agreements and RFP processes it takes part in at a commercial level, among other matters.
  • Advising seven companies that are operating public transportation services in East Jerusalem area, a controversial area that lies beyond the ‘Green Line’, which represents a significant part of the Israel-Palestine conflict.

Zemah Schneider & Partners

Zemah Schneider & Partners is best known for its experience in the automotive sector, where it has key expertise handling a range of regulatory issues related to the industry. The team has recently been kept active representing clients, which include industry bodies among others, before the Ministry of Transport and various Parliamentary committees. Ehood Schneider heads the regulatory practice.

Practice head(s):

Ehood Schneider

Other key lawyers:

Sigalit Ben Sasson

Key clients

Automotive Equipment (AEV) group

Union Motors Limited

Orion Mobility Ltd

Union Industrial Vehicle Ltd

EVEDGE Ltd

Lex Motors Ltd.

Champion Motors Ltd

The Israeli Vehicle Importers Association

The Two-wheel Association at the Israeli Chambers of Commerce

Metro Motor Marketing (1981) Ltd

Carasso Motors Ltd.

Colmobil Ltd.

Emcol Ltd

Zoko Enterprises Ltd

The construction equipment importers sector and the fork-lift importers sector at the Israeli Chambers of Commerce

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd

REE Automotive Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Representing Union Motors Limited, Carasso Motors Ltd, Mediterranean Car Agency Ltd., Eastern Automobile Marketing Limited in an appeal against the Israeli Ministry of Transport’s decision concerning the warranty given by the manufacturer of the vehicles to vehicles imported by grey importers, even if such warranty is limited only to the territory the vehicles were first sold in which does not include Israel.
  • Representing the Israeli Vehicle Importers Association before the Economic Affairs Committee of the Knesset in the matter of the Services and Profession’s Licensing of the Vehicle Industry Law, 5776-2016, and actively involved in the process of legislating regulation.
  • Advised Orion Mobility on the negotiation and drafting of a distribution agreement with a new vehicle manufacturer and obtaining all relevant licenses as well as on the daily operation and marketing of motor vehicles.

Gad Elbaz Law Office

Boutique firm Gad Elbaz Law Office distinguishes itself in the market thanks to the strength of its work advising on the acquisition of aircraft for private and commercial use. In addition to its transaction experience, the team also handled licensing, regulatory and contentious matters, among other work. Gad Elbaz is the name to note.

Practice head(s):

Gad Elbaz

Key clients

Elbit Systems

Elbit Systems subsidiary – Electro-Optics (El-Op)

Establishment Nahal Ltd.

Iscar

Aviation Comp. & Maintenance Union

Durstwell Limited

JM 1539 Inc.

Kayro Holdings Ltd.

Yaniv Itzhaki

Latam Airlines

Aero Club of Israel

Atlas

Alumot Ltd.

FNA Aviation

The Aero Club of Israel

Life Sport Aviation

Work highlights

  • Advised Iscar on the acquisition of part ownership in two executive aircrafts from a Portuguese company with a transaction value of $20m; a joint venture between Iscar and Edeltech, for the acquisition, maintenance and operation of a private helicopter in Israel, with a transaction value of $5m.

M. Firon & Co Advocates and Notaries

M. Firon & Co Advocates and Notaries'professional and committed team' has particular strength advising clients engaged in major infrastructure initiatives, including railway and highway projects. In the shipping and aviation sectors, the team also handles work ranging from regulatory matters to commercial arrangements. Tamar Firon-Smorodinsky is highly regarded for her expertise in all types of infrastructure projects, where he primarily advises on financing arrangements. Ron Genat is a key name for aviation companies.

Practice head(s):

Tamar Firon Smorodinsky; Ron Genat

Other key lawyers:

Udi Efron

Testimonials

‘An excellent team with a tremendous knowledge of infrastructure and transport projects. The team is always available and very much dedicated to the client and their success.’ 

‘I am very satisfied with what the team has to offer to us. The team is built in a way that match our needs.’

‘Good dedicated team. working with them is a pleasure. Their solutions adjusted to our legal needs. We got the feeling they will not give up until we are satisfied!’

Key clients

China Railway Group Ltd.

Bombardier

China Railway Tunnel Group Ltd.

China Railway Electrification Bureau Group Ltd.

Ashdod Port Company Ltd.

Haifa Port Company Ltd.

Noy Fund

The Phoenix Insurance Company

DHL

Carmelton Group Ltd.

Ashtrom Group Ltd.

Shapir Civil and Marine

El Al Israel Airlines Ltd.

Swissport Israel

Israel Railways Company

Israel Air Line Pilots Association

Maya Tours

Shlomo Transportation Group

Work highlights

  • Advising China Railway Tunnel Group China Railway Electrification Bureau on the Tel Aviv light rail project – in both the tender phase and during the actual project.
  • Advising CREC. Bombardier; Noy Fund and Phoenix Insurance on a PFI tender for the planning, construction and operation of the green and purple lines of the light rail project in Tel Aviv.
  • Advising Israel Air Line Ports Association, which comprises pilots from all the major Israeli airlines, on all aspects of aviation law and regulation.

Shibolet & Co.

Shibolet & Co. has particular expertise in the automobile industry, where it advises on purchases, sales, leasing, financing, export controls and various other matters. Of particular note, the firm is currently assisting the government of Israel with the Silk Road project proposed by the Chinese government. Gadi Ouzan, Limor Peled and David Magriso head up the team.

Practice head(s):

Gadi Ouzan; Limor Peled; David Magriso

Key clients

Volkswagen AG

General Motors

ŠKODA AUTO DigiLab Israel Ltd.

Albar Leasing (R.Z) Ltd.

NTA – Metropolitan Mass Transit System Ltd.

Netivei

Israel Railways

LeaseCar Group

China State Construction Engineering Corporation

Tactile Mobility Ltd.

Gasngo

Domicar Ltd.

Aurora Labs

Wisense Technologies

Axilion Ltd.

TransJerusalem J-Net ltd.

Adam CogTec

RailVision ltd.

Work highlights

  • Advising TransJerusalem J-Net Ltd on the submission of Israel’s largest tender, issued by the Israeli Ministry of Transportation and the Accountant General in the Ministry of Finance, with respect to the Jerusalem light rail transportation network J-Net.
  • Advised China State Construction Engineering on a transaction related to the Tel-Aviv Metropolitan LRT Green Line tender issued by NTA Metropolitan Mass Transit System Ltd.
  • Advised Red Bend on commercial software licensing transactions with most of the world’s leading car manufacturers and suppliers in the US, Europe, Japan, and China.