Environment in Canada

Bennett Jones LLP

Bennett Jones LLP’s first-class environmental law group is recognized for its experience in environmental impact assessments related to major infrastructure projects, particularly in the areas of energy and natural resources, which lines up nicely with its firm-wide strength. The team is also routinely engaged to advise on contaminated site issues, dangerous goods, spills and the defence of environmental prosecutions. Leonard Griffiths in Toronto is highly recommended, and Calgary-based Brad Gilmour, who heads the regulatory department, is noted for his expertise in environmental, energy, regulatory and Aboriginal law. Other names to note include Vancouver office managing partner Radha Curpen, who is qualified in British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario and New York, Calgary-based energy expert Shawn Munro and Toronto-based counsel Sarah Gilbert.

Other key lawyers:

Sarah Gilbert


Bennett Jones’ environment team is incredibly responsive and has the ability to focus on practical risks. It has an understanding of the law, and how it applies that is both wide and deep, and it also has the capacity to fit its knowledge base to your industry-specific needs.’

Sarah Gilbert is one of my most valuable resources. She always has ideas about which avenues to pursue, which regimes might apply, what questions need to be answered, and how to address issues that arise – or before they arise. Sarah is whip-smart with a vast and precise knowledge of environmental law. ’

Key clients

Federal Review Panel (Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency)

Vancouver Airport Fuel Facility Corporation

Canadian Natural Resources Limited

Capital Regional District

ATCO Electric Ltd.

Pacific Traverse Energy

Work highlights

  • Appointed by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency to be counsel to the Federal Review Panel in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act review of the Taseko New Prosperity Gold-Copper Mine Project, including in the subsequent judicial review.
  • Advised the Vancouver Airport Fuel Facilities Corporation on the five-year harmonized federal and provincial environmental assessment and First Nations community relations related to the Vancouver Airport Fuel Delivery Project.
  • Advised ATCO Electric on a detailed impact assessment related to the Jasper Interconnection Project.
  • Advised Pacific Traverse Energy on all aspects of the development of its liquid petroleum gas export project in Kitimat British Columbia, including regulatory approvals, environmental assessment requirements and indigenous community relations.

Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP

Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP distinguishes itself in part through its expansive national platform, which benefits from strong footholds in each of Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario and Quebec. The firm’s geographically diverse service offering is matched by an equally broad environmental focus that covers all industries and all environmental law issues. The group is best known for its strong track record in advising on the permitting, environmental assessment and project approval processes of significant mining, energy and infrastructure projects. It also handles site assessments, audits and transactional support matters. Toronto-based Jonathan Kahn heads the group and has varied expertise across regulatory, contentious and transactional matters. Charles Kazaz, who splits his time between Toronto and Montreal, has a strong emphasis on the mining industry, while Calgary-based Terri-Lee Oleniuk specializes in project-related issues. Sandy Carpenter recently left to establish his own firm.

Practice head(s):

Jonathan Kahn

Other key lawyers:

Charles Kazaz; Terri-Lee Oleniuk

Key clients

Trans-Northern Pipelines Inc.

BC Hydro

Bentall Kennedy (Canada) Ltd.

A&W Food Services of Canada

CRH Canada Group Inc.

Carillion Canada Group

Wynnchurch Capital, LLC

Renewable Energy Systems Canada Inc.

Nutrien Ltd. (formerly Agrium)

Work highlights

  • Acted for Carillion Canada, and certain other members of the Carillion Canada Group, on the going concern sale of the roads business to Emcon Services, including environmental issues.
  • Advised Wynnchurch Capital on the allocation of environmental liabilities connected to its C$62.4m acquisition of the North American assets of Uponor Infra Oy.
  • Advised A&W Food Services of Canada on actual and potential environmental liabilities at numerous leased properties throughout Canada.
  • Advised CRH Canada Group in proceedings related to the proposed redevelopment of Toronto’s Port Lands.

McCarthy Tétrault

McCarthy Tétrault’s diverse environmental law practice handles a relatively even balance of contentious and non-contentious work. On the non-contentious front, the group leverages the wider firm’s top-tier infrastructure and corporate offerings to provide comprehensive service in project development and transactional support matters. The department also excels in environmental litigation, with strong skill sets in contaminated sites, transportation of dangerous goods and permit appeals. Vancouver-based Paul Cassidy advises on the full scope of regulatory, litigation, policy and project development matters, and Cindy Vaillancourt Montreal is recommended for her expertise in environmental and climate change law.

Other key lawyers:

Cindy Vaillancourt

Key clients

Bruce Power

Wood Canada Limited

FortisAlberta Inc.

Morgan Stanley

Neptune Terminals Ltd.

Shell Canada / LNG Canada

Suncor Energy

International Paper

Vale Canada Limited

Railway Association of Canada

Work highlights

  • Advised Shell Canada on environmental and electricity regulation matters relating to LNG Canada’s plans for a gas liquefaction and marine terminal in Kitimat.
  • Represented Bruce Power on the environmental risk assessments related to the refurbishment of six of their eight nuclear reactors.
  • Represented Railway Association of Canada, Canadian National Railway Company and Canadian Pacific Railway Company on two related constitutional law matters dealing with the ability of the Province of British Columbia to single out and regulate federally regulated railways in respect of the transportation of dangerous goods.

Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg LLP

Leveraging a premier Toronto platform while continuing to grow its Montreal presence, Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg LLP is strengthening its reputation across Canada. The well-balanced group is a popular choice to advise on transactional support matters, but remains active across a wide range of environmental and social impact assessments, environmental approvals, contaminated sites issues and contentious matters. In Toronto, Sarah Powell and Alexandria Pike are widely considered leaders in the field, while Montreal-based Marie-Claude Bellemare is developing a strong reputation for environmental work.


The firm has demonstrated the ability to offer great practical support to get matters resolved. The advice is always framed in a very business-friendly practical context to support decision-making whilst recognising uncertainties and risks.

Sarah Powell, like all lawyers at Davies, provides exactly what we need in terms of advice and she has an excellent touch which helps navigate a complex regulatory environment.’

I have worked extensively with Alexandria Pike on environmental legal matters. Her advice is always based on rigorous analysis but also practical; she is able to balance the ideal with the real world when considering technical and legal issues.’

Marie-Claude Bellemare has an exceptional grasp on the law, is very well organized and always on top of every detail.’

Key clients

Amcor Limited

Barrick Gold Corporation

New Gold Inc.

Northleaf Capital Partners

Pattern Energy Group Inc.

Resolute Forest Products Inc.

RioCan Real Estate Investment Trust

The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company

The Public Sector Pension Investment Board

Toromont Industries Ltd.

Work highlights

  • Acted for Axium Infrastructure and Manulife on their joint C$922m acquisition of a 35% interest in three hydroelectric projects from AltaGas, including environmental issues.
  • Acted for Agnico Eagle Mines on its $325m acquisition of all of the exploration assets of Canadian Malartic Corporation, including the Kirkland Lake and Hammond Reef projects.
  • Advised Fengate Capital Management on its acquisition of the Heartland Petrochemical Complex’s Central Utility Block 102 MW cogeneration facility from Inter Pipeline.


In addition to its strengths in key areas such as contaminated sites, transactional support and permitting, Fasken’s comprehensive practice group advises on complex environmental assessments, environmental defence work and carbon markets. The team is best known for its experience in major energy infrastructure projects, where it often teams up with its indigenous law and energy practices to provide seamless regulatory advice. Most notably, the team is advising TransCanada PipeLines on its mammoth Prince Rupert Gas Transmission pipeline project; energy and environmental specialist Paul Wilson is leading a cross-departmental team on that matter. Names to note in Toronto include Rosalind Cooper, who is noted for her strong litigation expertise. Montreal-based Pierre-Olivier Charlebois, who heads the environmental, energy and climate change group for the Quebec region, is a notable up-and-comer.


Fasken’s group demonstrates excellent knowledge, excellent responsiveness, great efficiency and fair billing.’

Rosalind Cooper is extremely knowledgeable and always “hits the ground running.” She responds immediately and uses her time, and the client’s time, very efficiently. When a short response will do, she provides one, rather than making an unnecessary big deal out of something small.’

Key clients

FortisBC Energy Inc.

TransCanada PipeLines Limited

BC Hydro and Power Authority

Hexion Canada Inc.

CP Rail

Cermaq Canada

Manitoba Hydro

Teck Resources

Work highlights

  • Successfully defended CP Rail in a prosecution under the Environmental Protection Act in relation to an alleged failure to report a spill.
  • Advised TransCanada PipeLines on the environmental assessment and project permitting for its C$6bn Prince Rupert Gas Transmission pipeline project.
  • Advised Canadian Pacific Railway Company on environmental issues nationwide.

Gowling WLG

Gowling WLG’s sizeable national practice, which leans on partners in Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia, is particularly well versed in environmental litigation, where it is especially active for municipal clients. The group also advises on environmental assessments, regulatory matters and corporate support issues. Toronto-based Rodney Northey chairs the practice and has a focus on regulatory approvals and environmental strategy. Also in Toronto, Harry Dahme is considered among the leading environmental lawyers in Canada and brings to bear specialist expertise in waste management, water facilities and contaminated sites. In Vancouver, Wally Braul is noted for his environmental litigation practice. Up-and-coming partner Jennifer Danahy is another Toronto-based contact.

Practice head(s):

Rodney Northey

Key clients

Regional Municipality of Halton

Kirby Offshore Marine LLC

University of British Columbia

City of Mississauga

Government of Alberta

Corporation of the Town of Oakville

Corporation of the City of Thunder Bay

Marten Falls First Nation

Nunavut Resources Corporation

Gwich’in Council International

Regional Municipalities of Durham and York

Work highlights

  • Advised Kirby Offshore Marine LLC, a large operator of coastal tank barges and towing vessels, with regards to a marine oil spill that took place off the coast of British Columbia.
  • Represented the University of British Columbia in an environmental prosecution brought by the federal Crown pursuant to the Fisheries Act.
  • Represents the Government of Alberta in a multi-faceted dispute regarding a site outside of Edmonton contaminated by a former wood treatment processing facility.

Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP

Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP’s environmental law practice sits as part of its national regulatory, environmental, Aboriginal and land group, which is particularly rated for its ability to provide integrated regulatory and environmental advice on large scale industrial projects. Other areas of focus include environmental compliance, contaminated lands, transactional support and litigation. Calgary-based regulatory expert Shawn Denstedt QC is highly recommended, as are environmental litigator Jennifer Fairfax and talented associate Patrick Welsh, both of whom are based in Toronto. Other key contacts include Martin Ignasiak and Richard King, who jointly chair the practice from Calgary and Toronto respectively.

Practice head(s):

Martin Ignasiak; Richard King

Key clients

Rowbry Holdings Limited

Sears Canada Inc.

Algoma Steel Inc.

BC Partners and Ontario Teachers’ Pension Plan

De Beers Canada

Prosper Petroleum

Teck Resources Limited

Colacem Canada

Maple Leaf Foods Inc.

Blackstone Property Partners

Work highlights

  • Represented Rowbry Holdings in a C$10m contaminated lands claim.
  • Represented Sears Canada in its CCAA proceedings, including advising on the company’s environmental liabilities relating to contaminated sites.
  • Advised De Beers on all environmental permitting issues associated with the new Gahcho Kue diamond mine in the Northwest Territories.


Torys LLP houses a sophisticated environmental law group, with discrete offerings in deal support, litigation, project permitting, and regulatory and compliance matters. The firm’s top-tier electricity practice marks it as a popular choice for matters relating to the power and utilities spheres, though the team has proved its ability to act in any sector, with its recent experience also spanning the rail, mining, forestry and oil and gas industries. Dennis Mahony heads the group and has complementary expertise in health and safety, climate change and emissions trading. Also recommended are Tyson Dyck, who is noted for his leading climate change practice, and Michael Fortier, who focuses on environmental and indigenous law matters.

Practice head(s):

Dennis Mahony

Other key lawyers:

Tyson Dyck; Michael Fortier


The team has a deep understanding of the Ontario power market and provides valued, practical advice regarding project development. The team is able to assist in all stages of project development and help find creative solutions to tough problems.’

Tyson Dyck is a great lawyer who provides valued, practical advice to our company regarding all matters of power project development in Ontario.’

Key clients

Ontario Power Generation Inc.

Canadian National Railway

Enbridge Inc.

Canadian Tire Corporation

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce

Union Gas

Algonquin Power & Utilities Corp

Cameco Corporation

Morguard Investments Limited and Morguard Real Estate Investment Trust

EDP Renewables

Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP

Boutique firm Willms & Shier Environmental Lawyers LLP stands out for its broad coverage of environmental and Aboriginal law matters, benefiting from specialist platforms in Toronto, Ottawa, Calgary, and Yellowknife. The firm handles the full spread of advisory, transactional and contentious matters, including prosecution defence, brownfield strategy, and environmental assessment and approvals. Senior partner Marc McAree is highly regarded for his top-level litigation expertise, while Donna Shier is recognized as an expert in contaminated land matters. Also recommended is John Georgakopoulos, who developed significant regulatory experience as a former environmental scientist with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change. Named lawyers are based in Toronto.

Practice head(s):

John Georgakopoulos; Marc McAree

Other key lawyers:

Donna Shier

Key clients

ControlChem Canada Limited

The Regional Municipality of Peel

Town of Collingwood / County of Simcoe

Work highlights

  • Successfully defended ControlChem Canada in an environmental case.
  • Represented The Regional Municipality of Peel in a case relating to illegally deposited waste.
  • Successfully represented the Town of Collingwood and the County of Simcoe in its appeal against Renewable Energy Approval for a wind farm project.

Borden Ladner Gervais LLP

Borden Ladner Gervais LLP’s first-class shipping expertise secured several significant environmental engagements over the past year, including a grounding and associated fuel spill. Rick Williams, who is based in Vancouver, advises on commercial, regulatory and contentious issues, particularly in relation to project development, and energy and natural resource matters.

Practice head(s):

Rick Williams


The environmental team is very knowledgeable and responsive on short timelines.’

‘Rick Williams and Dino Rossi are both excellent.’

Key clients

Pavilion Energy Corp.

Primavera Resources Corp

Region of Peel


Eaton Corporation

BC Hydro

City of Vaughan

Markel International Ltd.

Sun-Canadian Pipeline Company Limited

Canada Color and Chemicals


Leucrotta Exploration Inc.

United Technologies Corporation

Ridley Terminals Inc.

Work highlights

  • Represented Crew Energy in several appeals before the British Columbia Oil and Gas Appeal Tribunal concerning the construction and operation of natural gas wells on Crown Land subject to an agricultural lease.
  • Acted as Canadian legal counsel to Kirby Corporation in regulatory and civil proceedings arising from the grounding of a tugboat and subsequent fuel spill.
  • Advised Ridley Terminals on the environmental issues related to the proposed expansion of its terminal in Prince Rupert.


Dentons’ environmental team regularly works alongside its signature oil and gas practice to advise on the environmental aspects of major pipeline projects, including recent mandates for PETRONAS and Syncrude Canada. It also has expertise in contaminated sites, and a wide variety of contentious issues and transactional support matters. Alex MacWilliam is a name to note.

Practice head(s):

Alex MacWilliam


Dentons continually strives to better understand every aspect of our business. Their stated motivation for this is so that they can better tailor their legal services to meet our specific needs, and to drive value for every dollar of external legal spend.’

The team are bright, pleasant to deal with, and are well regarded by regulators.’

Alex MacWilliam’s eye to detail and keen understanding of environmental issues have helped us through many environmental compliance and diligence matters. He has a high level of experience and expertise.’

Key clients

Alberta Conservation Association

Calgary Municipal Land Corporation

Capital Power

City of Edmonton

Ducks Unlimited Canada

Enbridge Inc.

Great West Life Realty Advisors

Groupe TNT Inc.

HOOPP (Healthcare of Ontario Pension Plan)

Katz Group

Morguard Investments Limited

Noralta Lodge Ltd.

Orkin Canada

Progress Energy Canada Ltd. (now PETRONAS Canada)

Syncrude Canada Inc.

World Fuel Services

Work highlights

  • Advised the Alberta Conservation Association on securing new conservation sites.
  • Advised Petronas on all regulatory, environmental and Aboriginal law issues related to NOVA Gas Transmission’s 2021 System Expansion Project which includes approximately 350 kilometres of new pipeline, three compressor station additions, and associated facilities.
  • Advised HOOPP, and its manager Morguard, on multi-year site remediation to remediate the client’s property, and adjoining properties, which are contaminated with hydrocarbon and deep chlorinated solvents.

Lawson Lundell LLP

Best known for its firm-wide expertise in mining-related issues, Lawson Lundell LLP’s environmental practice also houses specialist experience in the aquaculture, energy, transportation, and pulp and paper industries. Vancouver-based Brad Armstrong QC is highly regarded for project development work, regulatory approvals and contentious matters.

McLennan Ross LLP

Environmental law is a sweet spot at McLennan Ross LLP, which provides comprehensive service across Western Canada and beyond. Key pillars of activity include permitting, contaminated sites and the defence of regulatory prosecutions, where the team is also particularly prominent in the energy and utilities spheres. Edmonton-based litigator Ronald Kruhlak QC is nationally recognized for his expertise in energy and environmental regulation and litigation.

Aird & Berlis LLP

Toronto-based Aird & Berlis LLP advises a mix of public and private sector clients on environmental law issues, with notable strength in the real estate and municipal sectors. A key figure is litigator Scott Stoll, who focuses on infrastructure and utilities-related matters.

DLA Piper (Canada) LLP

DLA Piper (Canada) LLP’s strength in the forestry sector is a significant driver of environmental work. Jointly led by Lana Finney in Toronto and Robert Seidel QC in Edmonton, the team also handles a significant volume of mandates in the energy, and pulp and paper sectors.

Practice head(s):

Robert Seidel QC; Lana Finney


The DLA Piper team that we deal with has a depth of technical experience in the forest industry. They are excellent lawyers and understand the industry to a degree that no other law firm can match.’

DLA Piper is able to achieve the balance between advising appropriately but also recognizing that commercial needs sometimes require decisions to be reached more quickly and with considered risk.’

This team understands the public sector, and specifically, provincial government. Individuals are professional, available, and objective in their counsel; at the same time they understand our business and therefore bring informed and relevant counsel.

Pragmatic and solution-oriented. Completely on top of all matters, there are no concerns about DLA Piper missing something. Lana Finney is a tremendous professional and a pleasure to work with.’

Key clients

Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd.

Quantum Murray LP

Imperial Oil Limited

7-Eleven Canada, Inc.

Toronto Community Housing Corporation

Assured Automotive Inc.

Pinnacle Resources Ltd.

GFL Environmental Inc.

Emissions Reduction Alberta

Forest Resource Improvement Association of Alberta

Carnival Corporation

Work highlights

  • Represented Pinnacle, as a respondent, in an appeal to the British Columbia Environmental Appeal Board of a permit amendment for a pellet plant.
  • Acted for Imperial Oil in contaminated lands litigation relating to a former Imperial Oil bulk plant in Georgetown, Ontario.

Goodmans LLP

Goodmans houses a multi-disciplinary environmental law practice, which is consistently engaged to advise on the environmental aspects of large transactions. The firm is also experienced in advising private and public sector clients on urban revitalization and infrastructure developments, and corporate governance issues. The team is led by Catherine Lyons, whose practice spans municipal and environmental law.

Practice head(s):

Catherine Lyons


They have a very strong understanding of the full spectrum of client development needs; strong real estate, planning, and development knowledge helps them to fit the environmental challenges into the client’s overall business puzzle.’

A very responsive team which provides solid advice that we can relate to. Often, people in our industry get very convoluted advice and making a decision on the information provided becomes difficult. This is not the case with Goodmans.’

Catherine Kate Lyons has a strong background in planning, development and real estate law, combined with knowledge of how environmental concerns align with redevelopment needs. She gives great advice to clients on realistic expectations, challenges and potential legal liabilities.’

Key clients

Onex Corporation

Newmont Mining Corp.

Altria Group

Cott Corporation (Aquaterra Corporation)

Coca-Cola Canada Bottling Ltd.

HudBay Minerals Inc.

Acasta Enterprises Inc.

Amico Associates Inc.

Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corp.

Waterfront Toronto

Work highlights

  • Advised Onex Corporation on its C$5bn acquisition of WestJet, which involved reviewing and assessing environmental-related issues and risks related to Westjet’s multiple properties and maintenance facilities across the country and airline-specific GHG emissions and carbon pricing considerations.
  • Advised the Toronto Waterfront Revitalization Corporation on the revitalization of the Toronto waterfront.

Letcher Akelaitis LLP

Vancouver-based Letcher Akelaitis LLP is recognized for its leading contaminated sites practice. The environmental law boutique is also well versed in recycling and waste management issues, environmental assessment litigation and air contaminant matters. Key contacts include  Andrea Akelaitis and Gary Letcher, who is considered by some as an authority in contaminated sites issues.

Practice head(s):

Andrea Akelaitis; Gary Letcher

McInnes Cooper

McInnes Cooper sets itself apart through its extensive Atlantic Canada network, which includes six offices across Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador. The group has built a strong regional reputation in the energy, aquaculture, real estate and agribusiness sectors. Saint John-based Matthew Hayes, who heads the construction and infrastructure practice, is the key contact in the practice group.

Practice head(s):

Matthew Hayes

Miller Thomson

Made up of planning specialists, former regulators and litigators, Miller Thomson’s environmental law team advises on a broad spread of regulatory, transactional and contentious matters. Vaughan-based Bryan Buttigieg is recognized for his expertise in environmental and occupational health and safety matters.

Norton Rose Fulbright

Norton Rose Fulbright provides coast-to-coast coverage of environmental law matters, with strengths across the full range of contentious proceedings, transactional support and regulatory issues. Toronto-based Janet Bobechko now heads the national department, following the departure of Montreal’s Jean Piette Ad E to BCF Business Law. Associate Michael Manhas ‘communicates effectively’ and is a lawyer to watch in the Vancouver office.

Practice head(s):

Janet Bobechko


The team at Norton Rose is very knowledgeable and experienced. They are very responsive to questions and ensure they provide thoughtful and well-thought-out advice.’

Michael Manhas has been working on an environmental litigation matter for us and is an excellent lawyer. He is smart, communicates effectively and is also a pleasure to work with.’

Key clients



Badger Daylighting

Boliden Limited


Brookfield Asset Management Inc.

Canada Lands Company

Canadian National Railway

CDPQ Infra


Crescent Point Energy Corp.

Eaton Industries

Enbridge Income Fund Holdings Inc.

Equicapita Income Trust

Municipalite de Sainte-Martre Sure-le-lac

Municipality Lac Beauport



Pepsico Foods and Beverages

Prince Rupert Port Authority

Pt. Ellice Properties

Quebec Port Authority

Réseau de transport de la Capitale

Rio Tinto Alcan

SNC Lavalin

Suncor Energy


Tervita Corporation

Tenneco Automotive

Work highlights

  • Advised Brookfield Asset Management on the environmental and regulatory legal due diligence connected to its C$4.3bn acquisition of 19 natural gas processing plants and 3,550 km of gas pipelines in Alberta and British Columbia from Enbridge.
  • Represented Rio Tinto in regulatory charges and investigations brought under federal and provincial environmental laws that apply to fisheries, waste management, hazardous wastes, and spills.
  • Represented Nexen in an investigation by Alberta Environment and Parks, the Alberta Energy Regulator and Environment Canada and Climate Change into a pipeline leak at Nexen’s Long Lake oil sands facility in Northern Alberta.

Sheahan LLP

Montreal-based boutique Sheahan LLP has developed a prominent reputation nationally due to strong showings in regulatory and contentious matters. The firm is widely considered a referral favourite by leading full-service firms, and has built up strong experience across all industry sectors. Names to note include Anne-Marie Sheahan, who focuses on environmental counselling, regulatory analysis and transactional support.

Practice head(s):

Anne-Marie Sheahan

Stikeman Elliott LLP

Stikeman Elliott LLP's environmental law group routinely teams up with its M&A and finance teams to advise on environmental due diligence. With experts in the firm’s Toronto, Montreal, Calgary and Vancouver offices, the practice group also advises on contaminated sites, property development and environmental assessments. Toronto-based transactional specialist Larry Cobb is a key figure in the practice group.