Customs, trade, WTO and anti-dumping in Belgium

Mayer Brown

Mayer Brown offers governmental clients as well as global businesses and trade associations in the energy, chemicals, and retail sectors ‘clear, business-friendly, actionable advice‘ across the full range of international trade matters. In addition to acting in WTO disputes, the team advises on EU sanctions, export control, and tariff regulations, as well as in a number of high-profile anti-dumping investigations. Investment controls and the EU Foreign Subsidies Regulation represent growing areas of focus for the team, which frequently draws on the firm’s cross-practice antitrust capabilities to assist with anti-subsidy and FDI compliance and litigation. Paulette Vander Schueren, who is noted for her experience handling trade and supply chain compliance matters as well as questions surrounding customs valuation, co-leads the team with WTO and trade remedy disputes expert Nikolay Mizulin. Customs and ESG regulatory expert Dylan Geraets is also recommended.

Practice head(s):

Paulette Vander Schueren; Nikolay Mizulin

Other key lawyers:

Dylan Geraets


‘Excellent understanding of our business. Clear, business friendly, actionable advice.’

‘The team is very sharp, with Dylan Geraerts as an emerging talent in their practice. ’

‘Nikolay Mizulin is accessible, proactive, and business friendly.’

Key clients

Hitachi Energy

LG Chem, Ltd



Work highlights

V V G B Advocaten-Avocats

V V G B Advocaten-Avocats' practice excels at handling contentious trade defence cases, acting in high-profile WTO disputes as well as in EU anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations for a client roster that comprises governments and large multinationals. In addition to regularly acting on customs matters for its clients, the team's international arbitration expertise equips it to represent clients in their attempts to challenge and terminate safeguard measures and anti-dumping duties on an EU and third country level Increasingly, subsidies expert Edwin Vermulst also advises clients in connection with EU's Foreign Subsidies Regulation and Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism. Vermulst co-leads the practice with anti-dumping expert Folkert Graafsma, who is a key contact for WTO cases. Further key contacts in the team include Joris Cornelis, whose practice spans the breadth of international trade law, and customs and anti-dumping expert Juhi Dion Sud.

Practice head(s):

Edwin Vermulst; Folkert Graafsma

Other key lawyers:

Joris Cornelis; Juhi Dion Sud


‘I work mostly with Mr. Folkert Graafsma. He is able and willing to assist me at any time, which gives me the confidence to ask about any legal matters, even if the most trivial question. The explanation given also always been easy to understand, yet meaningful.’

‘The team is very dedicated and engaged in the case. The extensive know-how of previous cases help VVGB to make sound proposals which in return has a real positive outcome for our case.’

‘I find the empathy and sincerity of the individuals is very important. I felt every step of the consultation very confident. Combined with their expertise in the subject matter, this made working with them very easy.’

Key clients

The Vitra Group

Ministry of Trade, Government of the Republic of Indonesia

China Chamber of Machinery and Electronic Products


Huawei Group

The Electrosteel Group

Erdemir Çelik Servis Merkezi Sanayi ve Ticaret AŞ

P.T. Permata Hijau Palm Oleo

Ministry of Commerce, Royal Government of Thailand

Usinas Siderúrgicas de Minas Gerais S.A

The World Federation of Sporting Goods Industry

Evonik Industries AG


Ministry of Commerce, the People’s Republic of China

Çolakoğlu Metalurji/ Dış Ticaret A.Ş.

The Hyundai Steel Group


Work highlights

  • Acted for the Vitra Group, the largest tile manufacturer in Türkiye, in the EU anti-dumping investigation concerning imports of ceramic tiles from Türkiye and India.
  • Advised the Legal Service and the Directorate General for Trade of the European Commission in the EU’s trade dispute with the Southern African Customs Union concerning the imposition of safeguard measures on poultry products from the EU.
  • Acted for Permata Hijau Palm Oleo, an Indonesian client operating in the palm oil sector, in the EU anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations concerning fatty acids from Indonesia and the court challenge before the EU Courts concerning the EU’s imposition of anti-subsidy duties on biodiesel from Indonesia.

Van Bael & Bellis

Van Bael & Bellis‘ team is composed of a large roster of trade and customs experts who are very well-regarded for their ability to handle a wide range of contentious cross-border trade defence cases. The team is very active in WTO work, acting for national governments in a number of disputes surrounding anti-dumping, customs, and tariff measures. It also regularly represents multinational clients in the industrials sector in EU anti-dumping, anti-subsidy, and anti-absorption investigations alongside measure expiry reviews and trade remedy challenges before the EU courts. Practice head Philippe De Baere is instructed to advise on a growing number of ESG and supply chain compliance matters as well as on questions surrounding EU sanctions and export controls. Further key contacts in the team include trade defence experts Fabrizio Di Gianni and Richard Luff, customs expert Pablo Muñiz, as well as Yuriy Rudyuk and Isabelle Van Damme.

Practice head(s):

Philippe De Baere

Other key lawyers:

Fabrizio Di Gianni; Richard Luff; Yuriy Rudyuk; Pablo Muñiz; Isabelle Van Damme


‘VBB offers a unique combination of flexibility and unmatched expertise on Trade, WTO and anti-dumping issues. Practice leaders as well as the team provides a top-notch service and advise catering for every need a client or working partners (as Government officials) may require.’

‘Business oriented and savvy. Understand every single aspect of a trade related matter. Leadership.Insightful. Collaborative and helpful.’

‘Their service is thorough and professional. They advice covers many area which are not well dealt with by the client side. By reflecting VBB’s advice, our positions have been strengthened with legal rationale. ’

Key clients

AGP Glass

Canon Europa NV

Dingsheng Group




European Parliament

Fincantieri S.p.A.

General Electric

Giant Electric Vehicle

Giant Hungary Manufacturing Co.

Government of China

Government of Indonesia

Government of Italy

Government of Japan

Kaptan Demir


Marcegaglia Specialities S.p.A.



Prysmian Cables & Systems Ltd

The Dow Chemical Company

UK Government

Valbruna SpA


Work highlights

  • Represented Vitol in court proceedings in Belgium and the Netherlands concerning a claim for the reimbursement of anti-dumping duties paid on imports of biodiesel from Argentina.
  • Advised the Government of Indonesia in a WTO dispute settlement proceeding concerning certain measures imposed by the EU and its Member States in the framework of its renewable energy directives limiting the use of palm oil and oil palm crop-based biofuels.
  • Acted for Government of Switzerland in a WTO dispute settlement proceeding brought by Switzerland against the measures imposed by the United States on steel and aluminium products pursuant to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act.


International institutions, trade associations, and industrial producers rely on Dentons' trade expertise, with the team being especially well-disposed to act in WTO disputes surrounding Eurasian trade as well as litigation matters before EU courts in connection with anti-dumping, customs, and other trade remedy measures. The team is also active on trade compliance matters, providing due diligence advice in connection with EU sanctions and ESG-related supply chain matters. Practice head Edward Borovikov is well-versed in trade and competition law, while Xiaoyi Tang is a key contact for issues surrounding cross-border transactions. Sanctions specialists Nicoleta Tuominen and Laurens Engelen are further names to note, as is WTO expert Maria Krestiyanova.

Practice head(s):

Edward Borovikov

Other key lawyers:

Xiaoyi Tang; Maria Krestiyanova; Nicoleta Tuominen; Laurens Engelen


‘Dentons has a strong track record of handling anti-dumping cases and is able to work effectively with our team to identify issues and to develop practical strategies.’

‘Xiaoyi Tang displays experience and knowledge in anti-dumping investigations. He has an ability to understand and explain concisely the most complex anti-dumping issues and we are happy to work with him.’

‘Dentons Brussels trade team is a good fit for our company. They not only provide clear explanation on EU trade laws, but also help us to solve practical issues. This is very helpful for our company. They are very knowledgeable in the steel sector.’

‘Xiaoyi Tang stands out. His impressive combination of in-depth knowledge in trade remedy matters (including anti-dumping and anti-subsidies) and a keen understanding of industrial policy dynamics sets him apart. Mr. Tang’s ability to synthesize legal principles with real-world industrial challenges allows him to provide us with practical and strategic solutions that have proven invaluable for our company. His well-established connections in Brussels further enhance his ability to navigate complex trade matters and ensure that we receive comprehensive support. Moreover, Mr. Tang’s approachability and willingness to go the extra mile have made him an indispensable partner for us.’

‘The Dentons team continues their excellent service with their deep understanding and efficiency. ’

‘Nicoleta Tuominen stands out as a litigator before the EU Courts in trade defence files. She has vast experience and offers great pleadings to the court.’

‘They are diligent and creative in deep-thinking and analyzing for the optimal resolutions on various issues to best serve the client’s interest.’

‘Xiaoyi Tang is a top-notch international trade lawyer, with well and diverse experience and expertise on every aspects of international trade remedies. He is very creative and deep-thinker.’

Key clients

Vyatsky Plywood Mill

Qua Granite Hayal Yapi ve Urunleri Sanayi Ticaret A.S.

Major international steel producers

China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (“CCCME”)

China Iron and Steel Association (CISA)

S.C. Bibus S.R.L

Pantech Stainless & Alloy Industries Sdn Bhd

Neway Valve (Suzhou) Co., Ltd.

SAIC Maxus Automotive Co., Ltd

The European Commission

China Rubber Industry Association

Linyi Hongshun Porcelain Co, Ltd

Raoping Jinde Ceramics Co., Ltd

Work highlights

  • Represented Qua Granite Hayal Yapi ve Urunleri Sanayi Ticaret A.S, the largest Turkish producer of ceramic tiles, in EU anti-dumping proceedings concerning imports of ceramic tiles originating in Turkey.
  • Represented the China Iron and Steel Association in EU steel safeguard investigations and subsequently six rounds of review of the safeguard measures on imports of steel products from all exporting countries, including China.

Gide Loyrette Nouel A.A.R.P.I

The 'very experienced lawyers' at Gide Loyrette Nouel A.A.R.P.I are instructed by major companies and trade associations in connection with the EU's trade remedy measures, with the team both advising on trade compliance and representing clients in anti-dumping and anti-subsidy complaints and investigations before the European Commission. Export controls are a key areas of focus for the practice, which is particularly noted for its ability to advise on company's trade relations with China and compliance with the EU's sanctions on Russia. Practice head Olivier Prost is a longstanding expert on trade defence matters. Anna Claudia Coelho Dias departed the firm in July 2023, while senior counsel Wolfgang Müller joined from an in-house role at the European Commission.

Practice head(s):

Olivier Prost

Other key lawyers:

Clément Bouvarel; Wolfgang Müller


‘Very experienced lawyers with a good knowledge of our industry, know how to work with trade associations. ’

‘Olivier Prost has a very good understanding of challenges and offers great cooperation.’

‘Excellent strategic approach, whilst at the same time very operational. Superb communication with the client.’

‘Clément Bouvarel and Olivier Prost are both very meticulous and detail-oriented while also offering a big-picture approach. Both are very pertinent and diplomatic in their communication with us.’

‘Gide stands out as a trusted firm offering a unique blend of expertise, innovation, and client-oriented solutions that set it apart from the competition, especially in competition and anti-trust matters. Potential clients seeking to engage with this team will undoubtedly benefit from a deep understanding of the firm’s strengths and key capabilities. Their multidisciplinary approach ensures that clients receive well-rounded advice. Gide also boasts an impressive track record of successfully handling intricate cross-border matters. ’

‘Olivier Prost is a standout legal professional and has a deep and nuanced understanding of European Union law and competition law. His expertise in these complex fields is unmatched, and it is this mastery that provides clients with a decisive advantage when navigating intricate regulatory environments.’

Key clients

Mediterranean Shipping Company

Africa Global Logistics

Resonac Europe GmbH

GrafTech France SNC

Saint Gobain

Tokai Erft Carbon GmbH




ArcelorMittal Brasil S.A.


Coalition against Unfair Trade in Fatty Acid

ArcelorMittal Europe

Work highlights

King & Spalding LLP

King & Spalding LLP’s international trade practice is well-regarded for its expertise on the complainant side of trade defence cases, with the team regularly acting for EU industry bodies and associations in anti-dumping and customs enforcement claims. Advice in the context of advocacy work is another key area of expertise for the department, which routinely assists clients with the development of arguments for the introduction of further EU trade defence mechanisms. In addition to handling matters in the context of trade defence enforcement, the team also represents industry bodies in their capacity as exporters and regularly acts in third country trade remedy proceedings. Trade litigation expert Marie-Sophie Dibling, who maintains close relationships with clients in Morocco in addition to advising EU industrial clients, heads up the practice.

Practice head(s):

Marie-Sophie Dibling

Other key lawyers:

Herve Jouanjean


‘The team of Marie-Sophie Dibling is highly focused on EU industry , supporting the EU producers in all trade related matters. There are any few law firms in the EU having not just the specific area of expertise, but also the required knowledge of the administration work flows and the right sense of not only legal, but also political sensitivities.’

‘Very experienced lawyers with a good knowledge of our industry, know how to work with trade associations. ’

‘Marie-Sophie Dibling: Very good understanding of the challenges and great cooperation. Hervé Jouanjean: Huge expertise and knowledge about the European Commission and the WTO. Both are committed to EU industry.’

Key clients

Aegis Europe


The European Biodiesel Board

The European Confederation of European Paper Industries

The European Man-made Fibers Association

The European Superabsorbent Polymer Coalition


Work highlights

  • Acted for the European Man-made Fibers Association in the lodging of three anti-dumping related requests before the European Commission:, with the aim of extending anti-dumping duties for a further five years and of increasing the level of anti-dumping duties against all Chinese exporters.
  • Represented Plastima, the largest Moroccan producer of PVC tubing, in an expiry review before the Moroccan Ministry of Industry and Commerce and in an interim review of the anti-dumping measures on imports of Polyvinylchloride originating from the EU, the UK and Mexico, following the war in Ukraine.
  • Acted for the European Superabsorbent Polymer Coalition, a coalition of EU producers of superabsorbent polymer, in court proceedings before the General Court of the European Union, in which LG Chemicals is requesting to annul the anti-dumping duties on imports of SAP from South Korea.

Steptoe LLP

In addition to its 'deep knowledge of sanctions' and associated compliance work, Steptoe LLP is particularly well-versed in handling contentious trade defense matters. The team is capable of handling investigations and disputes before the WTO as well as before EU courts and has acted for governmental and corporate clients in proceedings regarding anti-dumping, import duty, and customs measures. Practice head Renato Antonini is a key contact for this line of work, while Eva Monard also advises on a growing number of regulatory matters in connection with export controls and ESG measures. Yongqing Bao maintains close relationships with a roster of China-based clients and advises across contentious and non-contentious trade matters.

Practice head(s):

Renato Antonini

Other key lawyers:

Eva Monard; Guy Soussan; Yongqing Bao; Byron Maniatis


‘It is a team of experienced lawyers with passion. They are experienced with working with authorities. They understand very well the law and the practice of the authorities. Hard work and quick responsiveness are further good values of this team. ’

‘Renato Antonini and Eva Monard have a good sense of business with the understanding on the customer’s demand. They are good at the strategy and also know well the ground work.’

‘Steptoe & Johnson LLP is reputable and professional.’

Key clients

Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China


China Rubber Industry Association

China Chamber of Commerce of Metals, Minerals & Chemicals Importers & Exporters

China Chamber of Commerce for Imports & Exports of Machinery & Electronics

Wego Chemical Group

Shanghai JA Solar PV Technology Co., Ltd.

Ansaldo Energia

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas


Kingdom of Cambodia

Cambodia Rice Federation

PT Indonesia Ruipu Nickel and Chrome Alloy

Liquidpower Specialty Products Inc

Work highlights

  • Successfully represented the Kingdom of Cambodia and Cambodia Rice Federation in its challenge of the GSP safeguards imposed by the EU Court of Justice of the European Union.
  • Assisted a major solar panel producer with EU customs issues and EU supply chain due diligence.
  • Assisted Liquidpower Specialty Products Inc with obtaining an amendment to the EU’s Russia sanctions allowing for a derogation for the supply of its products.

Bird & Bird

Bird & Bird assists industrial manufacturers as well as large multinationals in the TMT sector with a wide range of trade compliance matters, with a particular focus on providing due diligence advice in the context of EU customs and sanctions regimes. Guided by the expertise of competition expert Hein Hobbelen, the team also regularly acts for trade associations as complainants in anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations before the European Commission. Hobbelen co-heads the practice with Hague-based lawyer Brian Mulier, a trade and tax compliance expert who is noted for his advice on export controls.

Practice head(s):

Hein Hobbelen; Brian Mulier

Other key lawyers:

Baptist Vleeshouwers

Key clients

European Thermal Paper Association

Ahlstrom-Munksjö Oyj

Ricoh Industry France SAS

Felix Schoeller Holding GmbH & Co. KG

Malta Decor Sp. z o.o.

Work highlights

  • Represented the European Thermal Paper Association before the European Commission in an investigation regarding heavyweight thermal paper imports from South Korea, as well as in an action for annulment brought before the General Court and in the appeal against the General Court’s judgment before the EU Court of Justice.
  • Acted for Ahlstrom-Munksjö in the European Commission’s suspension review of anti-dumping duties on polyvinyl alcohol imports from China.

Herbert Smith Freehills LLP

Herbert Smith Freehills LLP regularly represents clients in trade disputes and arbitration, with the team's expertise encompassing WTO and ICSID disputes around customs and sanctions measures as well as, increasingly, complaints under the EU's Foreign Subsidies Regulation. Regulatory questions are also a key area of focus for the team, which advises multinational companies and trade associations in connection with EU sanctions and export control measures. Lode Van Den Hende leads the practice and is an expert in WTO litigation and international trade regulation. Other key contacts include Eric White, who regularly advises clients on post-Brexit UK-EU trade relations, and Morris Schonberg, an expert in subsidy control matters.

Practice head(s):

Lode Van Den Hende

Other key lawyers:

Eric White; Morris Schonberg


‘HSF delivers outstanding performance in the most complex EU law issues. They provide well-structured and practical advice with the focus on the client’s objectives. They achieve positive judgments in the EU General Court and the Court of Justice.’

‘Eric White is one of the most experienced European jurists. He leverages his deep understanding of the EU founding principles and precedents of their application and regulations to develop winning strategies.’

‘The team has outstanding capabilities in advising clients on new matters where there are no legal precedents – it truly stands out for its innovative approach. In particular, it has already established itself as a thought leader in relation to the Foreign Subsidies Regulation, a new instrument introduced recently by the European Commission.’

‘Lode Van den Hende stands out for his clear advice to clients on a very broad range of competition matters. He is a go-to name on competition matters in the energy sector, in particular, and has an outstanding profile in this sector. In addition, Morris Schonberg is also a rising star – he has exceptional knowledge and is outstandingly dedicated.’

‘Good leverage of a team with prior government experience.’

‘Eric White is a calm and measured voice in any storm, and brings solid perspective as a former EU Commission official to trade problems.’

Key clients

The Southern African Customs Union

British Sugar

British American Tobacco


Work highlights

  • Acted for AerCap in claims under its aviation insurance policies relating to the loss of aircraft and engines in Ukraine and Russia following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the imposition of international sanctions.
  • Represented the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) in a bilateral dispute with the EU under the EU-Southern African Development Community Economic Partnership Agreement concerning a SACU safeguard measure on certain EU poultry imports, one of the first trade arbitrations under an EU FTA.

Hogan Lovells International LLP

Hogan Lovells International LLP's trade and investment team frequently collaborates with the firm's global offices to advise on a range of multi-jurisdictional sanctions and trade defence matters. The team maintains a client base of leading multinationals in the pharma, financial services, and steel sectors and is very active in providing due diligence advice on EU sanctions and investment control matters, while also representing clients in a number of EU anti-subsidy investigations. Lourdes Catrain, who leads the Belgian team, is an expert on international trade and sanctions matters and regularly advises on the trade and investment compliance aspects of cross-border M&A.

Practice head(s):

Lourdes Catrain

Other key lawyers:

Falk Schöning


‘Hogan Lovells stands out for its expertise in customs and trade matters due to its global network of specialized lawyers, deep industry knowledge, and strategic approach to international trade law. Compared to other firms, it often emphasizes collaboration across jurisdictions and provides comprehensive legal solutions tailored to clients’ needs, combining regulatory insight with practical trade experience for effective representation in international trade disputes and compliance matters.’

‘Quick reaction times. Furthermore, the team proactively includes other Hogan Lovells offices worldwide in order to expand their expertise for the question.’

‘Clear and distinct answers. Really quick reaction times.’

‘The team is very responsive and reliable. Changes in the team are announced in advance and I feel that the quality of support remains at high level at all times. I am confident that no stone was left unturned when I receive advice from the team. ’

‘Hogan Lovells lawyers possess an exceptional legal acumen, extensive experience, and a client-centric approach. They stand out by possessing a deep understanding of global trade laws and regulations, combined with a proactive and strategic mindset. Moreover, their collaborative and interdisciplinary approach ensures clients benefit from a diverse range of perspectives and expertise.’

‘Lourdes Catrain understands business needs and provides tailor-made advice. She is able to grasp the unique concerns of the industry and provide straightforward answers to particular legal questions. The wording of her advice is very clear and comprehensive. ’

Key clients

Columbus Stainless PTY Ltd.

Companhia Nacional Siderurgica

Musim Mas

Windar Renovables SA



Work highlights

  • Advised Valero on the UK transition reviews of the EU anti-dumping and anti-subsidy measures on imports of biodiesel from the U.S. and Canada.
  • Represented Musim Mas in an EU anti-subsidy investigation into imports of fatty acids from Indonesia, resulting in the termination of the investigation without anti-subsidy measures.

Reed Smith

Reed Smith focuses on advising its client base of major corporate clients on a wide variety of customs-related matters. In this space, trade regulation and customs valuation questions are a key area of focus, although the team is equally capable of acting for clients in contentious trade remedy proceedings. Practice head Yves Melin offers clients extensive customs experience and also advises on a growing volume of sanctions matters as well as on questions surrounding supply chain compliance. Trade disputes expert Jin Woo Kim is also recommended.

Practice head(s):

Yves Melin

Other key lawyers:

Jin Woo Kim; Isabel Fressynet


‘Reed Smith brings a unique blend of expertise in EU customs law and EU trade defence laws to support clients. Mr Yves Melin is particularly recommended for bringing his holistic approach to any issue and provides both legal and commercially viable solutions.’

‘Mr Yves Melin is particularly recommended for bringing his holistic approach to any issue and provides both legal and commercially viable solutions. He is an expert on emerging trade issues in the EU concerning climate change, the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism, and due diligence directives. ’

‘Yves Melin’s team is ambitious and very well embedded in the broader setting that Reed Smith offers as an internationally operating office.’

Work highlights

White & Case LLP

White & Case LLP serves as the trusted advisor of a number of major companies and trade associations, with a particular focus on the steel industry, and focuses on acting in trade defence and WTO investigations and disputes. The team is very active in advising on the maintenance and enforcement of anti-dumping duties, while also handling matters related totrade safeguards and remedies for clients in their capacity as materials exporters. Trade compliance is a further area of expertise for the team, which is regularly instructed to advise on sanctions, supply chain, and customs matters. A consortium of lawyers leads the practice: James Killick handles trade defence and anti-dumping matters, Geneva-based Jasper Wauters is a key contact for WTO work, and Genevra Forwood and Sara Nordin are experts on sanctions and export controls.

Practice head(s):

James Killick; Genevra Forwood; Sara Nordin; Jasper Wauters


‘I really appreciate W&C’s team knowledge, client relationship, solution-oriented mindset, network and market knowledge. ’

‘The team has an outstanding knowledge of WTO law. They are not only excellent lawyers, but also economic and political advisors able to provide insight on international negotiations and activities necessary to build our advocacy strategy. They have a deep knowledge of our company and the internal way of working. They are a reference point for WTO law around the world and in particular in the Middle East. ’

‘W&C is highly specialised, reliable, competent, and available.’

‘Genevra Forwood is one of the very best partners practising trade law across Europe. She has a profound knowledge of the industry and her own practice and has the capacity to integrate herself in a very effective way into the business dynamics. ’

‘A great team of worldwide significance.’

‘Genevra Forwood is brilliant, very committed and trustworthy.’

Key clients


Saudi Aramco

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

Moroccan agricultural association

Moroccan fisheries association

Japan Business Council in Europe

Work highlights

  • Successfully represented Eurofer, the European Steel Association with 39 members in 22 countries, in an anti-dumping case against imports of certain hot-rolled flat products of iron, non-alloy or other alloy steel originating in Turkey.
  • Acted for the Moroccan agricultural association and the Moroccan fisheries association in the ‘Western Sahara’ litigation before the Court of Justice of the European Union, concerning challenges brought to EU-Morocco trade agreements under public international law principles.
  • Advised Saudi Aramco on a wide variety of trade policy issues and trade disputes across all jurisdictions.

Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton

Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton offers broad trade compliance capabilities that allow the team to advise on EU sanctions and safeguards as well as, increasingly, the EU’s Foreign Subsidies Regulation. Besides its regulatory expertise, which is bolstered further by connections with the firm’s international offices, the team also acts for European producers in investigations and disputes surrounding anti-dumping, anti-subsidy, and anti-circumvention rules. François-Charles Laprévote is an expert on regulatory matters, including FDI, and co-leads the practice with Till Müller-Ibold, who is a key contact for sanctions work and regularly represents clients in proceedings before the European Courts.

Practice head(s):

François-Charles Laprévote; Till Müller-Ibold

Other key lawyers:

Wanjie Lin


‘We work with Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP on a number of EU law, state aid and trade-related cases. They constantly look for the best solutions, considering all aspects of a case. Cases we work with them on often impact a series of interconnected fields, making it extremely important to look at the big picture.’

‘The firm is reliable and always at hand for any questions and advice, and I can honestly recommend them as their work is truly industry-leading. Their innovative approach to EU trade law sees them thinking out of the box and responding to new issues.’

‘Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton lawyers are always collaborative, patient and professional, making them a pleasure to work with.’

Key clients


Tosoh Hellas

City Cycle

PT Chin Haur

LG Chem

Republic of Serbia

Work highlights

  • Successfully represented Ajinomoto Foods Europe in in its request to the European Commission to extend and amplify MSG trade defence measures.

Crowell & Moring

Crowell & Moring‘s team benefits from the firm’s global presence, which enables it to advise on a wide range of cross-border trade compliance matters for leading multinational corporates and industrial producers. The team also handles contentious work in the context of securing market access, with a particular focus on representing clients in investigations for the review of EU, UK and US customs and anti-dumping measures. Experienced trade compliance and disputes lawyer Vassilis Akritidis, who also handles WTO matters and EU anti-fraud investigations, leads the practice.

Practice head(s):

Vassilis Akritidis

Key clients

Viraj Profiles Pvt. Ltd

Maxim Tubes

Lucchini Mame Forge SpA

Amari Metals Ltd

Yorkshire Metals Ltd

TitanX Engine Cooling AB

Sangraf Italy


Windar Renovables

Work highlights

  • Represented Cerame-Unie before the European commission in an anti-dumping petition and investigation concerning imports of ceramic tiles from India and Turkey and in an anti-dumping expiry review concerning ceramic tiles from China.
  • Acted for Viraj Profiles in a UK trade remedy transition review concerning stainless steel bars from India.
  • Represented Windar Renovables SA before the Department of Commerce in a US antidumping investigation on wind towers from Spain.


Garrigues advises a range of European and North African companies in the industrials, food, and pharma sectors on a range of trade defence matters and focuses on defending clients’ interests in their capacities as manufacturers and exporters. Accordingly, the team assists manufacturers’ associations in applying for the introduction and prolonging of safeguarding measures, while also representing exporters in anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations. Practice head Angel Givaja is noted as an expert on trade remedies and customs matters.

Practice head(s):

Angel Givaja

Other key lawyers:

Virginia Romero


‘They intend to keep a fairly small core team with back-up if necessary. This helps to create confidence and straight communication within the process. ’

‘Angel Givaja is very skilled and has the capability to synthesize complex technical matters.’

Key clients

Spanish Association of Ripe Olive Exporters

Affordable Medicines Europe

Maghreb Steel

Association des fabricants des tubes au Maroc



Organización de Productores de Burela

Xunta de Galicia

Work highlights

  • Acted for Maghreb Steel and Association des fabricants des tubes au Maroc in applications to prolong safeguard measures imposed on tubes and certain hot and cold-rolled steel products.
  • Advised the Spanish Association of Ripe Olive Exporters in the ongoing US ITC anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigation into imports of ripe olives from Spain.
  • Represented CELO, S.A. before the European Commission in several anti-dumping proceedings concerning the reimbursement of imports duties of steel fasteners originated in China.

Jones Day

Questions surrounding international trade regulations represent the focus area of Jones Day's team, which is knowledgeable on matters concerning EU sanctions, customs measures, and ESG supply chain regulations. The team, which also advises clients on the regulatory aspects of WTO rules and is capable of of acting in regulatory challenges and trade remedy proceedings, counts multinational companies as well as governmental entities in its client roster. Practice head Nadiya Nychay is vastly experienced with WTO matters as well as with trade compliance and dispute resolution.

Practice head(s):

Nadiya Nychay


‘Excellent skills; great availability; capacity to find simple answers to complex questions.’

Work highlights

K&L Gates GP

K&L Gates GP‘s Brussels team maintains close relationships with the firm’s international offices, which it routinely leverages to act for commercial clients in EU anti-dumping investigations and in trade measure reviews. The team also regularly advises on the FDI aspects of global M&A and advises a growing number of clients on EU sanctions compliance. Petr Bartoš frequently handles FDI and export control matters. Alessandro Di Mario left the team in September 2022, and former practice head Philip Torbøl left the firm in 2024, shortly before publication.

Other key lawyers:

Petr Bartoš; Nikolaos Peristerakis

Key clients

LG Chem Ltd.


Jota Aviation Ltd.

Amadeus IT Group SA




Lummus Technologies LLC

Arconic Corporation




ATI, Inc.

FujiFilm Europe GmbH

Lacy Distribution, Inc.


Kaman Corporation

Birdeye, Inc.

Entersekt Proprietary Limited

Google Inc.

Tight Co SL

Dorian LPG LLC

Macquarie Capital (Europe) Limited

Chemnav Shipmanagement Ltd.

Navitramp Freight Agency Ltd.

Ball Horticultural Company

Federated Hermes, Inc.

Dimensional Fund Advisors

Sinch Holding AB

Quest Software Inc.

Julius Bär Group

Inner Mongolia Dazhong Mining Co., Ltd

JP Lease Products and Services

Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd

Coty, Inc.

Votorantim Cement

Prvo Plinarsko Drustvo (“PPD”)

Church & Co. Ltd

Xempus AG

Repligen Corporation

ACM Research Inc.

Ermenegildo Zegna Holditalia S.p.A (“Zegna”)

Prada S.p.A.

NIO Gmbh

James Hardie Industries plc

Work highlights

  • Assisted Julius Bär, a Swiss private banking corporation, with EU sanctions compliance related to the transfer of certain funds between two major financial cities in Europe.
  • Advised FMI on the removal of a duty suspension for imports into the EU on products currently produced by FMI in the EU.

Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP

EU-US trade relations are a key area of expertise for the team at Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP, which routinely collaborates with the firm's British and American offices to advise multinationals in a wide array of sectors on trade and investment compliance matters. The team is well-versed in matters surrounding export controls and sanctions and, in addition to handling due diligence and contracting matters, also represents clients in trade investigations and proceedings. Regulatory expert Curtis Dombek leads the practice.

Practice head(s):

Curtis Dombek

Other key lawyers:

Julien Blanquart


‘This firm understands our business quite well and is very knowledgeable about the customs regulations associated with our business.’

‘Curtis Dombek is excellent at his job and very responsive to our needs.’

Key clients

Kitron ASA

Toyota Motor Corporation

Southwest Airlines

Owens-Illinois, Inc.


Snap, Inc.

Work highlights

  • Advised Kitron ASA on compliance with international trade regulations in connection with planned corporate acquisitions and compliance with export controls.
  • Advised Toyota on the export, import and aviation regulatory aspects of its global strategic flying vehicle program, one facet of which has been Toyota’s investment in and collaboration with Joby Aviation.
  • Advised Southwest Airlines on the compliance aspects of its global import and export business, which includes sourcing and deployment of equipment and software globally, including from suppliers in the Europe, Middle East and Africa region.