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Legal Developments and updates from the leading lawyers in each jurisdiction. To contribute, send an email request to
The new French regulation applying to national insurance contributions for managers and shareholdersFrench insurance contributions on executive and shareholder remuneration (pay + dividends) have been substantially increased by the National Insurance Funding for 2013 Act, No. 2012-1404, of 17th December 2012. Until 31st December 2012, all dividends were subject to national insurance contributions on unearned income but henceforth, under Article L136-3 of the National Insurance Code, amended by Act No. 2012-1404, certain dividends are considered as pay received by executives and shareholders and are therefore subject to the national insurance contributions on pay. The Act also abolished the ceiling on health insurance contributions payable by the self-employed and all this means that businesses must rethink the way that they have been structured until now.
The People's Republic of China has initiated an overhaul of its social security system, reformed the personal taxation regime and has extended the scope of these laws to foreigners residing in China.
The Kingdom of Morocco is supporting the ambition of becoming the leading financial place for Africa. In this context, a wave of draft laws is to be passed and implemented within the following months, amongst which, the Law No. 53.08, setting up a new financial authority, and the Law No. 54.08, reforming public offering rules, are of paramount importance to Moroccan and foreign issuers, and financial institutions.
The opportunities offered to foreign investors by the Chinese mergers and acquisitions market are increasing every year: in 2010, transactions involving foreign companies came to 60.1 billion euros, an increase of 21.2% compared with 2009. Seen from the West, where markets are declining, all sectors of the Chinese economy seem to be undergoing promising development and the statistics indicate that the Middle Empire will be a lasting springboard for growth.
Types of investors The private equity (PE) funds that are active in Bulgaria are not raised or registered in the country. Some Bulgarian PE funds were raised recently, but there are no statistics as to the sources of their funding, their number, the funds that were accumulated, etc.
THE PROCEDURE IS CLARIFIED, BUT MAY COMMITMENTS APPLY WITHOUT LIMIT?
cartel case closed after discovery that leniency application was largely based on forgeries and rejection of collective dominant position objection.
(1) No pre-dismissal actions are possible during maternity leave (2) Putting a protected employee back into his previous position after an unsuccessful attempt to a promotion requires the employee’s agreement (3) Means of measuring the electoral base of sector-based trade unions validated by the French Constitutional Council
(1) The general contractor is not liable vis-à-vis third parties for damages caused by his subcontractor (2) Termination by right of a commercial lease by application of a cancellation clause implies a breach of the express obligations contained in that lease (3) A provision in a lease transferring to the lessee the cost of major repairs and of walls and roofs, must be narrowly interpreted
(1) Patent law: the patentability of computer programs examined by the Enlarged Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office (2) Trademark law: Israel joins the International Trademark System (3) Trademark law: clarifications to the doctrine of exhaustion of rights