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Transfer and Granting of Rights under Turkish Petroleum Law: Freedom of Contract versus Regulatory REspecially after the drop in oil prices the companies that are in early stage of their investments have begun to get position aiming to turn into an advantageous investment and started to look to what extent the regulations allow them to transfer and grant their rights under Turkish Petroleum Law. This may be deemed also as an exit strategy for some from operational perspective as it parallels with the tendency around the world and has direct relation with oil prices.
Contracting the Petroleum Operations under Turkish Petroleum Law: Scope and Limits of Liability on PAs exception to liberty of contracting and unlike a number of other industries, Turkey's petroleum industry imposes certain obligations to petroleum right owners in contracting the conduct of the petroleum operations. At the first glance this seems that it aims to strengthen the management of hazards by enhancing the safety however the liability imposed to petroleum right owners in case of contracting the operations still remains unclear in terms of limitation.
Growing economy and competitive environment in Turkey has been leading companies to seek more profitable ways to conduct their business. Therefore companies have chosen to engage in subcontracts for the purpose of reducing their costs. Yet, to serve such purpose, at some point companies have started utilizing subcontracts to limit employees' entitlements through collusive contracts. Labor Law numbered 4857 (the " Labor Law ") and Bylaw on Subcontractor dated September 27, 2008 (the " Bylaw ") regulate which services or works may be subcontracted and strictly prohibit collusive contracts. According to Article 2/7 of the Labor Law, a collusive subcontract is considered null and void. Such nullity of subcontract automatically results in primary employers being redefined as main and sole employers of employees assigned to subcontracted work. Consequently, primary employers are solely responsible for employees' rights arising from subcontracted works and technically, primary employers would not have the option to recourse to subcontractors in order to claim any compensation due to their sole responsibility.
Boundaries of the Turkish Competition Authority's Investigative Powers: Case Handlers vs. Personal Property
The acquisition of a minority shareholding may come under the Turkish Competition Authority's (" Authority ") scrutiny in two ways, mainly: 1) it may result in de facto or de jure sole or joint control, depending on the rights possessed by the minority shareholders and/or shareholding structures and past voting patterns; and 2) it may not result in control but in cross-shareholding structures amongst competitors in a concentrated market which may raise questions about coordinated effects. This article discusses the circumstances under which the abovementioned consequences may arise under Turkish competition law with references to the relevant legislation and the most noteworthy cases in this regard.
Introduction to Construction for Allotment Agreements
The Turkish Petroleum Law, a touchstone for goals of attracting foreign investors to Turkish petroleum industry entered into force on 11 June 2013 and has been introduced as a revolution in oil and gas industry as it was leveling the playing field for foreign investors and removing the privileged rights of the state company.
In consideration of the duties and responsibilities of each two above mentioned authorities, the SLOTs regulations have been mentioned on laws and directives drafted by the DGCA until 17 June 2010. After 17 June 2010, the legal authority for SLOT application was transferred to GDSAA by the Ministry of Transport (restructured and named as Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communication as of 01 November 2011).However, in current situation, the legal responsibility for SLOT applications is at the DGCA but the legal power is still exercised by GDSAA.